Belajar Bahasa Perancis(part three)


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ternyata artikel bahasa perancisku ada 3 episode….

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Additional French Vocabulary

Glossary Content :

Vocabulary related to Lesson 6 – The Family


  • le/un grand-père (grand father)
  • la/une grand-mère (grand mother)
  • les grands-parents (the grand-parents)
  • le/un petit-fils (grand-son)
  • la/une petite-fille (grand-daughter)
  • le/un neuveu ([male] nephew)
  • la/une nièce ([female] nephew)
  • le/un cousin ([male] cousin)
  • la/une cousine ([male] cousin)
  • l’/un oncle (uncle)
  • la/une tante (aunt)
  • le/un beau-frère (brother-in-law)
  • la/une belle-soeur (sister-in-law)
  • le/un beau-père (father-in-law)
  • la/une belle-mère (mother-in-law)
  • le/un bébé (baby)
  • le/un nouveau-né (newborn)


  • se nommer [= s’appeler] (to be called)
  • naître (to be born)
  • épouser (to marry)
  • se marier [= épouser] (to marry)

Adjectives & Adverbs

  • aîné (e) (elder)
  • familial (e) (familial)
  • jeune (young)
  • vieux (vieille) (old)

Expressions and Idioms

  • le/un grand frère (the older brother)
  • la/une grande soeur (the older sister)
  • le/un petit frère (the younger brother)
  • la/une petite soeur (the younger sister)
  • le/un gamin ([male] kid)
  • la/une gamine ([female] kid)

Vocabulary related to Lesson 7

Countries and Citizenship

Country                       Citizenship
France                        français (French)
Belgique (Belgium)            belge (Belgian)
Suisse (Switzerland)          suisse (Swiss)
Angleterre (England)          anglais (English)
Allemagne (Germany)           allemand (German)
Italie (Italy)                italien (Italian)
Espagne (Spain)               espagnol (Spanish)
Irlande (Ireland)             irlandais (Irish)
Russie (Russia)               russe (russian)
États Unis d'Amérique (USA)   américain (American)
Canada (Canada)               canadien (Canadian)
Québec (Quebec)               québécois (Quebecer)
Chine (China)                 chinois (Chinese)
Japon (Japan)                 japonnais (Japanese)
Portugal (Portugal)           portugais (Portugese)
Pays-bas (Netherland)         hollandais (Dutch)
Danemark (Denmark)            danois (Danish)
Norvège (Norway)              norvégien (Norwegian)
Suède (Sweeden)               suédois (Sweedish)
Finlande (Finland)            finlandais (Finish)
Pologne (Poland)              polonais (Polish)
Hongrie (Hungary)             hongrois (Hungarian)
Bulgarie (Bulgaria)           bulgare (Bulgarian)
Autriche (Austria)            autrichien (Austrian)
Roumanie (Rumania)            roumain (Rumanian)
Turquie (Turkey)              turque (Turkish)

French Expressions and Idioms

The following list provides you with common French expressions and idioms. Idioms are the most difficult aspect of any language that’s why I think it is worth learning them. New items will be added in the future.

Idioms and expressions are organized according the following topics :

  1. Day-to-day Life
  2. At Work
  3. Sports

1. Day-to-day Life

  • faire des courses (to go shopping)
  • arriver à l’heure (to arrive in time)

2. At Work

  • travailler dur (to work hard)
  • avoir du travail par dessus la tête (to be overloaded by work)
  • bosser [slang](to work)
  • se tourner les pouces (to spin thumbs)
  • travailler à son compte (to work )
  • profession libérale (professional)
  • un grand travailleur (a person who works very hard)
  • une bête de somme (a person who works very hard)
  • un petit chef (a low level boss, also in a pejorative meaning, a autoritary boss)
  • un cadre supérieur (an executive)

3. Sports

  • marquer un but [soccer] : to score


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Belajar Bahasa Perancis(part two)

karena part one nya belum selesai…

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LET’S GO!!!!!


Lesson 6 – The Family

Some sound files of this lesson are not available yet but I thought that it was worth releasing this lesson because I know how eager to learn French you are. The missing sound files will be added very soon.

Lesson plan :




  • appeler (to call)
  • habiter (to live)


Following is a short text describing the Dupont family … in French off course !

headphoneMonsieur et Madame Dupont ont deux enfants
Mr. and Mrs. Dupont have two children

headphoneIls ont un garçon et une fille
They have a boy and a girl

headphoneLe garçon s’appelle Pierre.
The boy is called Pierre

headphoneLa soeur de Pierre s’appelle Caroline
Pierre’s sister is called Caroline


L’institutrice : headphoneComment t’appelles-tu ?
The teacher : What’s your name (literally: How are you called ?)

Pierre : headphone
Pierre : My name is Pierre (literally: I am called Pierre)

L’institutrice : headphoneQuel âge as-tu ?
The teacher : How old are you ?

Pierre : headphoneJ’ai dix ans
Pierre : I am ten

L’institutrice : headphoneEst-ce que tu as des frères et soeurs ?
The teacher : Do you have any brother or sister ?

Pierre : headphoneOui. J’ai une soeur.
Pierre : Yes, I have one sister

L’institutrice : headphoneQuel âge a-t-elle ?
The teacher : How old is she ?

Pierre : headphoneElle a huit ans.
Piere : She is eight

L’institutrice : headphoneQuel est ton nom de famille ?
The teacher :What’s your family name ?

Pierre :Dupont
Pierre : Dupont

L’institutrice : headphoneOù est-ce que tu habites ?
The teacher : Where do you live ?

Pierre : headphoneJ’habite à Toulouse
Pierre : I live in Toulouse

Notes on Pronunciation

  1. One of the major characteristics of French pronunciation is the usage of what we call in French liaisons. Liaisons are links between words. As mentioned in the first lesson (“Guidelines for French Pronunciation”), most of the time, the final character of a word is not pronounced. This rule is generally true but its scope is limited to separate words. When words are assembled in a sentence, this rule is no longer applicable. Consider two words, for instance trois (three) andenfant (child). Each separate word is pronounced like this : headphone trois, headphone enfant. When put side by side (trois enfants), both words are pronounced as if they were linked together in only one word like this headphone trois_enfants [troisenfan]. That’s what we call a liaison. In the next lessons, liaisons will be indicated by an underscore “_”, but keep in mind that the words linked by a liaison are two separate words.
    You cannot use liaison between all words. A liaison takes place only when the first word terminates with a consonant and when the second word begins with a vowel. For example there is no liaison between trois (three) and voiture(car). In addition, some consonants do not sound a normal way when pronounced in a liaison.

  2. x sounds as z e.g. headphonedeux_enfants [deuzenfan] (two children),
    Unfortunately, as any good rule, the liaison rules have lots of exceptions. In particular, some liaisons don’t sound good or sound very weird to a French ear and must be avoided. No logic can help non French speaking people know whether a liaison must or must not be done. I suggest you to rely on the indications I am going to add in the further lessons, as mentioned above (underscore character). To get liaison instructions for the conversation above, click here.

    1. The consonant combination llis very frequent in French. The way you heave to pronounce it depends on the character that precedes “ll” :
      • when preceded by a i , “ll” is pronounced the same way as in Spanish, i.e. like a “y”.
      • when preceded by a e, “ll” is pronounced like a “l” but changes the sound of the “e” to “è”.
      • when preceded by any other vowel (i.e. a, o, u), “ll” is pronounced like a single “l”.
  3. Let’s apply this rule to some words introduced in this lesson :
  • When you went through the above conversation you may have noticed a new strange and weird character : ç. “ç” is called c cédille [ssédiye] and is pronounced like two “s”. Therefore garçon is pronounced [garsson]. Some other usual words have a ç like : ça (this),
  • The word fils (son) is pronounced as if the “l” was absent [fiss].

Notes on Vocabulary

  1. French people have a prénom and a nom . The prénom is the first name (USA) or given name (UK) while the nom is the last name (USA) or surname (UK). The Pierre’s prénom is Pierre. His nom is Dupont. The last name (or surname) is also referred to as nom de famille (family name).
  2. To express the age of people, French people don’t use the verb être (to be) as English people do but the verb avoir (to have)instead. Thus, we say :
    • J’ai vingt ans (I am twenty)
    • Tu as vingt ans (you are twenty)
    • Il/elle a vingt ans (He/she/it is twenty)
    • Nous avons vingt ans (We are twenty)
    • Vous avez vingt ans (You are twenty)
    • Ils/elles ont vingt ans (They are twenty)
  3. Note that in French, one asks the age of people using the following form : quel &acircge as-tu ? (literally : what age do you have ?).


The conversation above illustrates two grammatical points : the usage of the genitive and the possessive pronouns


What is genitive ? Genitive is the grammatical name of something very simple, in fact. Genitive denotes the ownership. In English the ownership is indicated by adding ‘s to the owner when it is a human being, or by using of when the owner is a thing. For example :

  • Mr Dupont has two children, Pierre and Caroline. We can say that Pierre and Caroline are Mr Dupont’s children .
  • When talking about the wheels which belong to a car we say : the wheels of the car (and not the car’s wheels).

In English, ‘s and of are used to denote the genitive form. In French, the genitive form is indicated by de in the same way as the English of . For instance :

  • Monsieur Dupont a deux enfants, Pierre et Caroline (Mr Dupont has two children, Pierre and Caroline). Pierre et Caroline sont les enfants de Monsieur Dupont (Pierre and Caroline are Mr Dupont’s children).
  • Les roues de la voiture (the wheels of the acr).

In French, de is used to express ownership for either persons and things (or animals).

Possessive Pronouns

In English possessive pronouns are : my, your, his/her/its, our, your, their. Their French counterpart are more complex because they depend on the gender and the number of the object owned by the owner. For example, when I talk about my bicycle (vélo in French) I say mon vélo because vélo is a masculine singular noun. When talking about my car (voiture in French) I say ma voiture because voiture is a feminine singular noun. When talking about my shoes (chaussures in French) I say mes chaussures because chaussures is a plural noun. The following table shows how the possessive pronouns vary according to the gender and the number. Note that when plural, the possessive pronoun is the same whatever the gender.

Possessive   masculine  feminine  plural
Pronoun      singular   singular
my           mon        ma        mes
your         ton        ta        tes
his/her/its  son        sa        ses
our          notre      notre     nos
your         votre      votre     vos
their        leur       leur      leurs

Note that as opposed to English, the French possessive pronouns don’t depend on the gender of the owner. Consider the Mr and Mrs Dupont’s car. Both Mr and Mrs Dupont say, when talking about their car : ma voiture .

In addition, let’s review the sentences structure. The above conversation contains two kinds of sentence structure : normal and interrogative.

  • normal sentence : Monsieur et Madame Dupont ont deux enfants. The components are : the subject (Monsieur et Madame Dupont), the verb (ont) and the accusative or complément d’objet direct, thus following the general pattern : SUBJECT + VERB + ACCUSATIVE
  • interrogative sentence : Où est-ce que tu habites ? Where the subject is “tu”, the verb is “habites” and the interrogative conjunction is “où”. The sentence pattern is CONJUNCTION + est-ce que + VERB + SUBJECT ? Note that the teacher could have used the other interrogative sentence pattern : Où habites-tu ? (CONJUNCTION + VERB + SUBJECT).

Liaisons Guidelines

Monsieur et Madame Dupont ont deux_enfants
Ils_ont un garçon et une fille
Le garçon s’appelle Pierre.
La soeur de Pierre s’appelle Caroline
L’institutrice : Comment t’appelles-tu ?
Pierre : Je m’appelle Pierre
L’institutrice : Quel_âge as-tu ?
Pierre : J’ai dix_ans
L’institutrice : Est-ce que tu as des frères et soeurs ?
Pierre : Oui. J’ai une soeur.
L’institutrice : Quel_âge a-t-elle ?
Pierre : Elle a huit_ans.
L’institutrice : Quel est ton nom de famille ?
Pierre :Dupont
L’institutrice : Où est-ce que tu habites ?
Pierre : J’habite à Toulouse

Lesson 7 – D’où viens-tu (Where do you come from)

Some sound files of this lesson are not available yet but I thought that it was worth releasing this lesson because I know how eager to learn French you are. The missing sound files will be added very soon.

Lesson plan :

  1. Vocabulary
  2. Conversation
  3. Notes on Vocabulary
  4. Liaisons Guidelines


Noms (Nouns)

  • ici (here)
  • là (there)
  • un pays (country)
  • une ville (city, town)
  • la citoyenneté (citizenship)
  • une destination (destination)
  • une origine (origin)

Verbes (Verbs)

  • headphonevenir (to come)
  • headphonealler (to go)
  • aller à (to go to)
  • venir de (to come from)
  • voyager (to travel)
  • être né (to be born)

Adjectifs (Adjectives)

  • loin (far)
  • près (close)

Prépositions (Prepositions)

  • de (from)
  • à (to)

Conjonctions (Conjunctions)

  • quel/quelle/quels (what)

2. Conversation

La famille Dupont a de nouveaux voisins. Pierre rencontre le fils de ses voisins.
The Dupont Family has new neighbours. Pierre meets the son of his neighbours.

Pierre : Bonjour. Je m’appelle Pierre. Comment t’appelles-tu ?
Pierre : Hello, my name is Pierre. What is your name ?

Peter : Je m’appelle Peter
Peter : My name is Peter.

Pierre : D’où est-ce que tu viens ?
Pierre : Where do you come from ?

Peter : Je viens d’Angleterre. Mes parents sont anglais.
Peter : I come from England. My parents are english.

Pierre : Super ! Est-ce que tu viens de Londres ?
Pierre : Wonderful ! Do you come from London ?

Peter : Oui. Je suis né à Londres.
Peter : Yes. I was born in London.

Pierre : Tu parles bien français. Moi, je ne parle pas anglais.
Pierre : You speak French very well. As far as I am concerned, I don’t speak English.

3. Notes on Vocabulary

Countries and Citizenship

In French, as in English, the first character of country names must be uppercase, while the uppercase is not required for the citizenship. Example (refer to the ” additional vocabulary ” section for more country names) :

Country                       Citizenship
France                        français (French)
Belgique (Belgium)            belge (Belgian)
Suisse (Switzerland)          suisse (Swiss)
Angleterre (England)          anglais (English)
Allemagne (Germany)           allemand (German)
Italie (Italy)                italien (Italian)
Espagne (Spain)               espagnol (Spanish)
Irlande (Ireland)             irlandais (Irish)
Russie (Russia)               russe (russian)
États Unis d'Amérique (USA)   américain (American)
Canada (Canada)               canadien (Canadian)
Québec (Quebec)               québécois (Quebecer)
Chine (China)                 chinois (Chinese)
Japon (Japan)                 japonnais (Japanese)

Note that, as opposed to English, the citizenship cannot be easily derived from the country name. Citizenship is similar to an adjectif [je suis français (I am French)]. Consequently, citizenship must be in accordance with the gender and the number of the people considered. Example :

  • Elle est anglaise (She is English)
  • Mes amis sont américains (My friends are American)
  • Les chinois et les chinoises ne sont pas grands (Chinese men and women are not tall)

As same as citizenship, the way French people call the inhabitants of a city is not straight forward. The list below provides some examples :

City                      Inhabitant
Paris                     parisien
Marseilles                marseillais
Lyon                      lyonnais
Lille                     lillois
Toulouse                  toulousain
Bruxelles                 bruxellois
Genève (Geneva)           genèvois
Rome                      romain
Londres (London)          londonien
Berlin                    berlinois
New York                  new-yorkais
Pékin (Beijing)           pékinois

There are some striking irregular examples :

City                      Inhabitant
Saint Étienne             stéphanois
Saint Malo                malouin
Bordeaux                  bordelais
Madrid                    madrilène
Moscou                    moscovite

Prepositions de and à

When used with verbs expressing a movement, the preposition de means from, while à means to. Therefore, they are both key prepositions in French language. Examples :

  • venir de (to come from)
  • aller à (to go to)

More precisely, de and à refer to locations and not to movements. de refers to the origine of the movement and à refers to the destination. To illustrate that, consider the following expression : d’ici à là [d’ici is the contraction of de ici] which means from here to there (ici = here, là = there).

Note that de and à have both different meanings depending on the verb they are associated with or their role in the sentence. For instance, we have already mentioned (see lesson 6) that de is used to express the genitive relationship between two words.

4. Liaisons Guidelines

Pierre : Bonjour. Je m’appelle Pierre. Comment t’appelles-tu ?

Peter : Je m’appelle Peter

Pierre : D’où est-ce que tu viens ?

Peter : Je viens d’Angleterre. Mes parents sont anglais.

Pierre : Super ! Est-ce que tu viens de Londres ?

Peter : Oui. Je suis né à Londres.

Pierre : Tu parles bien français. Moi, je ne parle pas_anglais.

Lesson 8 – Comparer (Comparing)

Some sound files of this lesson are not available yet but I thought that it was worth releasing this lesson because I know how eager to learn French you are. The missing sound files will be added very soon.

Lesson plan :

  1. Vocabulary
  2. Conversation
  3. Notes on Vocabulary
  4. Grammar
  5. Liaisons Guidelines
  6. Ordinal Numbers


Noms (Nouns)

  • un collègue (a colleague)
  • un travail (a job, a work)
  • un restaurant (a restaurant)
  • une voiture (a car)
  • une idée (an idea)
  • un litre (a liter)
  • un kilomètre (a kilometer)
  • un mètre (a meter)
  • un mètre carré (a square meter)
  • un mètre cube (a cubic meter)
  • une garantie (a warranty)

Verbes (Verbs)

  • rencontrer (to meet)
  • acheter (to buy)
  • vendre (to sell)
  • coûter (to cost)
  • avoir envie de (
  • changer (to replace, to change)
  • devoir (must, to have to)
  • aimer (to like, to love)
  • trouver (to find)
  • consommer (to consume)
  • vouloir (to want)
  • avoir raison (to be right)
  • avoir tort (to be wrong)

Adjectifs (Adjectives)

  • nouveau (m.s.), nouvelle (f.s.), nouveaux (m.p) (new)
  • vieux (m), vieille (f) (old)
  • superbe (superb)
  • cher (m), chère (f) (expensive)
  • bon marché (cheap)
  • beau (m), belle (f), beaux (m.p.) (nice, beautiful)
  • actuel (m), actuelle (f) (current, present)
  • puissant (m), puissante (f) (powerful)
  • performant (m), performante (f) (performant)

Prépositions (Prepositions)

Conjonctions (Conjunctions)

  • pourquoi (why)
  • parce que (because)
  • combien (how much, how many)
  • trop + adjectif (too + adjective)
  • beaucoup (too much)

2. Conversation

Monsieur Dupont rencontre un collègue de travail au restaurant.
Mister Dupont meets a colleague in a restaurant.

M. Dupont : J’ai envie d’acheter une nouvelle voiture.
M. Dupont : I’d like to buy a new car.

Le collègue : Pourquoi ?
The colleague : Why ?

M. Dupont : Parce que ma voiture est trop vieille. Je dois la changer.
M. Dupont : Because my car is too old. I must replace it.

Le collègue : Est-ce que tu as une idée de ce que tu veux acheter ?
The colleague : Do you have an idea of what you want to buy ?

M. Dupont : Oui. J’aimerais acheter la nouvelle Renault. Elle est superbe.
M. Dupont : Yes. I’d like to buy the new Renault. It is superb.

Le collègue : Oui, mais elle doit coûter cher, n’est-ce pas ?.
The colleague : Yes but it must be expensive, isn’t it ?

M. Dupont : En effet, elle coûte cher, mais elle est moins cher que la nouvelle Peugeot. C’est la plus performante et elle a la meilleure garantie.
M. Dupont : Indeed it is expensive but is less expensive than the new Peugeot. It is the most performant and it has the best warranty.

Le collègue : Combien consomme-t-elle ?
The colleague : How much gas does it consume ?

M. Dupont : Sept litres au cent. Ce n’est pas beaucoup. C’est beaucoup moins que ma voiture actuelle. En plus, elle est plus puissante.
M. Dupont : Seven litres every one hundred kilometers. It is . It is far less than my current car. In addition, it is more powerful.

Le collègue : Tu as raison. Tu fais une bonne affaire.
The colleague : You’re right.

3. Notes on Vocabulary

To be right / to be wrong

The French counterparts of the English to be right and to be wrong are avoir raison and avoir tort. While in English one uses the verb to be in French one uses avoir (to have).

Emphasizing Questions

Consider the following question : Is this car expensive ? You ask this question because you don’t have any idea of the price of the car being considered. You expect that the person we are talking to tells you the price of the car. Now, imagine you already know the price of the car, and it is really expensive. You surely don’t ask your question the same way. You would probably say : This car is expensive. Isn’t it ?

In French it is possible to emphasize your questions the same way. The normal interrogative form is : Est-ce que cette voiture est chère ? But, if you already know that it is expensive and emphasize the fact that it is expensive you could say : Cette voiture est chère. N’est-ce pas ? In the latter sentence, n’est-ce pas plays exactly the same role as the English isn’t it. There is, however, a difference between the English and the French form.

It is …

The expression it is is translated in French by Cela est or more currently by the contracted form C’est. To some extent, cela or c’ plays a similar role as it. However, cela must not be considered as the impersonal pronoun. There is no impersonal pronoun in French (it in English) because things and animals are either masculine or feminine.

Examples :

  • C’est une belle voiturre (It is a nice car)
  • C’est une grande maison (it is a big house)
  • C’est un homme agréable (He is a pleasant man. Literrally : It is a pleasant man).

4. Grammar

Comparative and Superlative Forms

Comparatives are used to compare things. A comparison can express a superiority, an inferiority or an equality relationship. In English the comparisons are expressed as follows :


My car is more performant than yours.

My car is nicer than yours.


Your car is less performant than mine.

Your car is less nice than mine.


Your car is as performant as mine.

My car is as nice as yours.

In French, there is only one superiority comparison form built as follows, regardless the length of the adjective :

plus + adjective + que

As we can notice, plus is equivalent to more, and que is equivalent to than.

Examples :

  • Ma voiture est plus performante que la tienne. (note that la tienne means yours)
  • Ma voiture est plus belle que la tienne.

The inferiority form is composed like this :

moins + adjective + que

where moins plays the same role as less and que the same role as than.

Examples :

  • Ta voiture est moins performante que la mienne. (note that la mienne means mine)
  • Ta voiture est moins belle que la mienne.

The equality comparison is formed as follows :

assi + adjective + que

where assi plays the same role as as and que the same role as as.

Examples :

  • Ma voiture est aussi performante que la tienne.
  • Ta voiture est aussi belle que la mienne.

Note that, the adjectuve must respect the concordance rules with the gender and the number.

Superlatives are used to denote the highest degree of an adjective (or an adverb). In English, superlatives are built up by appending an adjective with the termination -est or by adding most before. In French, the superlaive form of an adjective is derived by adding plus before. Note that plus plays a similar role as most in English. However, while in English, the superlative is preceded by the definte article the, in French, the definte article must be in accordance with the gender and the number of the noun(s) it refers to.

Examples :

  • Ma voiture est la plus performante.
  • Ma voiture est la plus belle.

Examples :

  • Ta voiture est la moins performante.
  • Ma voiture est la moins belle.

These rules are very simple and apply to almost every adjective. Unfortunately there are a few exceptions, as in English !

  • bon (good)
    • superiority comparative : mieux que
    • inferiority comparative : moins bon/bonne que
    • equality comparative : aussi bon/bonne que
    • superiority superlative : le/la meilleur/meilleure
    • inferiority superlative : le/la moins bon
  • mauvais (bad)
    • superiority comparative : pire que or plus mauvais que (both are correct)
    • inferiority comparative : moins mauvais/mauvaise que
    • equality comparative : aussi mauvais/mauvaise que
    • superiority superlative : le/la pire or le/la plus mauvais/mauvaise
    • inferiority superlative : le/la moins mauvais/mauvaise

Expressing a wish

In French, people express a wish by using the conditional tense. It is pretty the same as in English.

The conditional present conjugation for aimer (to like) and vouloir (to want) is listed below.


Tu aimerais
Il/elle aimerait
Nous aimerions
Vous aimeriez
Ils/elles aimeraient


Je voudrais
Tu voudrais
Il/elle voudrait
Nous voudrions
Vous voudriez
Ils/elles voudraient

Conjugation Pattern :


Irregular conjugation

Vouloir (to want)
Je veux
Tu veux
Il/elle veut
Nous voulons
Vous voulez
Ils/elles veulent

Devoir (must)

Je dois
Tu dois
Il/elle doit
Nous devons
Vous devez
Ils/elles doivent

Vendre(to sell)

Je vends
Tu vends
Il/elle vend
Nous vendons
Vous vendez
Ils/elles vendent

5. Liaisons Guidelines

M. Dupont : J’ai envie d’acheter une nouvelle voiture.

Le collègue : Pourquoi ?

M. Dupont : Parce que ma voiture est trop vieille. Je dois la changer.

Le collègue : Est-ce que tu as un_ idée de ce que tu veux acheter ?

M. Dupont : Oui. J’aimerais acheter la nouvelle Renault. Elle est superbe.

Le collègue : Oui, mais_elle doit coûter cher, n’est-ce pas ?.

M. Dupont : En effet elle coûte cher, mais_elle est moins cher que la nouvelle Peugeot et je la trouve plus belle.

Le collègue : Combien consomme-t-elle ?

M. Dupont : Sept litres au cent. Ce n’est pas beaucoup. C’est beaucoup moins que ma voiture_actuelle. En plus, elle est plus puissante.

Le collègue : Tu as raison. Tu fais une bonne_affaire.

6. Ordinal Numbers

In French, ordinal numbers are directly derived from the numbers by appending ième. There is only one exception : the French counterpart of first is not unième but premier.


  1. there are some irregular numbers which result in a minor alteration of the spelling (e.g. ninth is neuvième instead of neufième, fifth is cinquième instead of cinqième).
  2. 21st, 31st, 41st, etc. are translated by vingt-et-unième, trente-et-unième, quarante-et-unième, etc. and not vingt-premier, trente-premier, quarante-premier, etc. as in English !
  • premier (first)
  • deuxième or second (second)
  • troisième (third)
  • quatrième (fourth)
  • cinquième (fifth)
  • sixième (sixth)
  • septième (seventh)
  • huitième (eighth)
  • neuvième (ninth)
  • dixième (tenth)
  • onzième (eleventh)
  • douzième (twelveth)
  • treizième (thirteenth)
  • quatortzième (forteenth)
  • quinzième (fifteenth)
  • seizième (sixteenth)
  • dix-septième (seventeenth)
  • dix-huitième (eighteenth)
  • dix-neuvième (nineteenth)
  • vingtième (twentieth)
  • vingt-et-unième (twenty first)
  • centième (hendredth)
  • millième (thousandth)

The abbreviated notation of the ordinal numbers is : 1er (1st), 2ième (2nd), 3ième (3rd), 4ième (4th), 21ième (21st), 31ième (31st), 100ième (100th), 101ième (101st), etc.

Lesson 9 – Le temps (Time)

Whether time is the fourth dimension of the Universe – as suggested by modern physics – or a bio-physical process which makes events irreversible, it is a reality which nobody can reject ! As a matter of fact, the way people apprehend time is strongly reflected in the human languages. In the Western European languages (these are the only languages I can talk about) time is basically composed of two concepts : the instant and the duration. The languages try to address these two basic concepts with an arsenal of verb tenses. Although the main principles are the same, there are sound and subtle differencies between languages in the way they express time. First, let’s talk about the common concepts.

Time can be thought as a one-dimension rule where events occur. A point, or a specific position on the rule is an instant while the space between two instants is a duration. I am sure that you are very familiar with these definitions. The time – the position on the time rule – of our conscience is the reference point : it is present time. Before it is the past and after, the future. In the Western European languages, the basic verb tenses directly reflect this partition of time : they make provision of present, past and future tenses. However, present, past and future depict only the position – the instants – of events relative to the reference point (our conscience). Expressing the duration is subtler and vary very strongly from one language to an other one.

Lesson plan :



  • aujourd’hui (today)
  • hier (yesterday)
  • demain (tomorrow)
  • un matin (a morning)
  • midi (noon)
  • une après-midi (an afternoon)
  • un soir (an evening)
  • une nuit (a night)
  • le présent (the present)
  • le passé (the past)
  • le futur (the future)
  • un jour (a day)
  • une semaine (a week)
  • un mois (a month)
  • une année (a year)
  • une heure (a hour)
  • une minute (a minute)
  • une seconde (a second)


  • prochain / prochaine (next)
  • dernier / dernière (last)

Conjunctions & Adverbs

  • tôt (early)
  • tard (late)
  • avant (before)
  • après (after)


In French, there are 4 past tenses :

  • l’imparfait,
  • le passé simple,
  • le passé composé,
  • le plus-que-parfait.

The passé simple won’t be addressed in this lesson for it is not used in the spoken language (today, the passé simple is exclusively employed in literrary works such as novels). The three other past tenses are commonly used in both the spoken and the written language. The most popular of them is the passé composé. So, let’s start with it.

1. The passé composé

The passé composé is the most popular but not the simpler past tense. As suggested by its name (passé composé means composed past), the passé composé is built up using an auxiliary verb. In French, as opposed to English and Germanic languages, there are two possible auxiliary verbs : avoir (to have) and être (to be). Basically, the passé composé is constructed following the pattern below :

auxiliary verb conjugated in the present tense + verb in past participle

Examples :

manger (past participle : mangé) :

  • j’ai mangé
  • tu as mangé
  • il/elle a mangé
  • nous avons mangé
  • vous avez mangé
  • ils/elles ont mangé

aller (past participle : allé) :

  • je suis allé(e)
  • tu es allé(e)
  • il/elle est allé/allée
  • nous sommes allés (es)
  • vous êtes allés (es)
  • ils/elles sont allés/allées

Notes :

  1. In French, the past participle of the 1st group verbs (verbs ending with -er) is derived from the infinitive tense by replacing the infinitive ending (-er) by -é. This rule is always applicable … for the 1st group verbs only !
  2. When conjugated with the auxiliary avoir the past participle remains unchanged whatever the subject is (mangé in case of the verb manger) while when the auxiliary être is required, the past participle changes in accordance with the gender and the number of the subject, as shown in the example above. We’re going back to this remarks later on.
  3. There is, unfortunately, no rule to help people determine whether a verb conjougates with the auxiliary avoir or être. There are some hints but no rigourous rule. We’re going through them later on.

The Passé Composé Usage

The passé composé is used to express actions which took place in the past and are completed. In addition, to some extent, there may be a link, or a relationship between this past action and the present. For instance, the past action may have consequences in the present, or the past action took place in a period which is not completed yet – though the action itself is completed – (such a period can be an hour, a day, a week, the duration of a special event, etc.). In general, the passé composé does not bear any duration information by itself : the action may have been very long or very short. The duration information – if required – must be added explicitly (see 5th example below).

  • Hier, j’ai déjeuné à 1 heure (Yesterday, I lunched at one o’clock) : the lunch is now finished ! (the action of lunching is completed)
  • L’année dernière, elle a visité le Canada (Last year, she visited Canada) : the action of visiting Canada is now finished.
  • L’avion est arrivé à 11 heures (The airplane has arrived at 11 o’clock) : the airplane is now arrived (the action of arriving is completed)
  • Hier, j’ai mangé avec mon meilleur ami (Yesterday, I ate with my best friend) : the action of eating is now completed
  • J’ai attendu le bus pendant vingt minutes (I’ve waited for the bus for twenty minutes) : the action of waiting is now completed.
  • Ce matin, j’ai lu un livre (This morning, I read a book) : the book is now read (the action of reading is completed) and, in addition, the period of time (the current day in this example) is not completed.
  • J’ai apprécié ton cadeau (I have appreciated your present) : the action of appreciating is completed but the resulting feeling (good appreciation) is still alive in the present time.

The Past Participle in French

Basically, past participle is fairly simple in French but there are lots of irregular verbs which make it more complicated than it seems at the first look. Remember the 3rd lesson dedicated to verbs : there are three verb groups in French.

  • the 1st group : verbs ending with -er (aller, parler, manger, chanter, etc.),
  • the 2nd group : verbs ending with -ir (finir, courrir, bâtir, etc.),
  • the 3rd group : verbs ending with -re (vendre, boire, rire, etc.).

The past participle for the 1st verb group is built by replacing the infinitive ending by . e.g. :

Infinitive Past Participle
manger (to eat) mangé
chanter (to sing) chanté
aller (to go) allé
jouer (to play) joué

The past participle for the 2nd verb group is built by replacing the infinitive ending by -i. e.g. :

Infinitive Past Participle
finir (to finish) fini
grandir (to grow) grandi
choisir (to choose) choisi
sortir (to go out) sorti
partir (to leave) parti

But there some major exceptions such as :

Infinitive Past Participle
courir (to run) couru
couvrir (to cover) couvert

The 3nd group verbs are strongly irregular. However, in many cases, the past participle is obtained by replacing the infinitive ending by -u. e.g. :

Infinitive Past Participle
vendre (to sell) vendu
boire (to drink) bu
prendre (to take) pris
voire (to see) vu
entendre (to hear) entendu
vivre (to live) vécu
mettre (to put) mis

The past participles for the verbs être and avoir are :

  • être (to be) : été (been)
  • avoir (to have) : eu (had)

You’ll find a list of past participles at the end of this lesson.

The Past Participle Concordance rules

The past participle concordance rules are certainly one of the most complicated aspects of the written French. There are two basic rules :

  • the concordance rule for the verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary être,
  • the concordance rule for the verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary avoir.

Let’s startwith the simplest one :

Concordance rule for the verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary être

Rule : the past participle ot the verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary être is in concordance with the gender and the number of the subject of the verb. The concordance complies with the adjective concordance rules (the feminine is formed by appending a -e and the plural by appending a -s). e.g.:

  • Ils sont allés en Amérique l’année dernière (They went to America last year) : ” ils ” is masculine plural.
  • Elle est arrivée en retard à l’école (literally : she arrived late at school. She was late at school) : Elle is feminine.
  • Le camion et la voiture sont arrivés à l’heure (the truck and the car arrived on time) : there are two items (the truck and the car) so that the subject is plural. One of the item is masculine (le camion) then the concordance rule applied is the macho rule (the masculine wins over the feminine).

Concordance rule for the verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary avoir

Rule : the past participle of the verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary avoir is in concordance with the gender and the number of the complément d’objet if it is placed before the verb (!!!) otherwise, the past participle remains unchanged. The concordance complies with the adjective concordance rules (the feminine is formed by appending a -e and the plural by appending a -s). e.g.:

  • Elle a mangé des oranges (She has eaten oranges) : the complément d’objet is ornages. It is placed after the verb, so that the past participle is not in concordance with it.
  • Les oranges qu’elle a mangées sont bonnes (The oranges she has eaten are good) : the complément d’objet is oranges. It is placed before the verb, so that the past participle is in concordance with the gender (orange is feminine in French) and number (oranges is plural) of the complément d’objet.

Determining the right auxiliary

Most of the verbs conjugate in passé composé with the auxiliray avoir. However, the number of verbs which require the auxiliary être is not negligable. There is no reliable rule to determine whether a verb conjugate with the auxiliary être or avoir. Nevertheless, there are some hints which can help you use the right auxiliary. The verbs which conjugate with the auxiliary être are :

  1. the ” pronominal ” verbs (verbes pronominaux),
  2. the ” intransitive ” verbs (verbes intransitifs) which express a movement or a change of state

The concepts of pronominal and intransitive verbs will be discussed in detail later on this course. However, to clarify the previous rules, let’s give the following definition :

  • a pronominal verb is reflexive i.e., it directly applies to the subject. In English, the pronominal verbs are those which require myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves. e.g. : I wash myself, you watch yourself in the mirror, he kills himself, etc. In French, the pronominal verbs are distinguished by se in front of them in the infinitive form. e.g. se laver (to wash oneself), se regerder (to watch oneself), se tuer (to kill oneself), se promener (to walk), s’habiller (to wear), etc. As you see, some verbs are transitive in French and not in English.
  • a intransitive verb is a verb wich does not require a complément d’objet (an accusative). Conversely, the verbs which require a complément d’objet are called transitive. e.g.
transitive verbs conjugation example
manger (to eat) je mange un bon repas (I am eating a good meal)
chanter (to sing) Je chante une chanson (I am singing a song)
boire (to drink) je bois un verre de vin (I’m drinking a glass of wine)
intransitive verbs conjugation example
aller (to go) je vais à l’école (I’m going to school)
voler (to fly) l’avion vole (the airplane flies)
rouler (to run) la voiture roule (the car runs)

So, the main intranstive verbs which must be conjugated with the auxiliary être are :

  • aller (to go)
  • arriver (to arrive)
  • devenir (to become)
  • entrer (to get in, to get into)
  • mourrir (to die)
  • naître (to be born)
  • partir (to leave)
  • rester (to stay)
  • sortir (to get off, te get out of)
  • tomber (to fall)
  • venir (to come)

2. The Imparfait

The imparfait is the second most popular past tense in French. As opposed to passé composé,it is very easy to conjugate for it does not need any auxiliary verb. The imparfait conjugation pattern is similar to the present tense one with some alterations.

Conjugation of the 1st group verbs

chanter (to sing)

  • je chantais
  • tu chantais
  • il/elle chantait
  • nous chantions
  • vous chantiez
  • ils/elles chantaient

parler (to speak, to talk)

  • je parlais
  • tu parlais
  • il/elle parlait
  • nous parlions
  • vous parliez
  • ils/elles parlaient

écouter (to listen to)

  • j’écoutais
  • tu écoutais
  • il/elle écoutait
  • nous écoutions
  • vous écoutiez
  • ils/elles écoutaient

You can clearly see the conjugation pattern applying to the the termination of the 1st group verbs.

  • 1st person singular : -ais
  • 2nd person singular : -ais
  • 3rd person singular : -ait
  • 1st person plural : -ions
  • 2nd person plural : -iez
  • 3rd person plural : -aient

Now, let’s try ” aller ” which irregular in present tense :

  • j’allais
  • tu allais
  • il/elle allait
  • nous allions
  • vous alliez
  • ils/elles allaient

In the imparfait, ” aller ” is no longer irregular. That’s a good news !

Conjugation of the 2nd group verbs

finir (to finish)

  • je finissais
  • tu finissais
  • il/elle finissait
  • nous finissions
  • vous finissiez
  • ils/elles finissaient

venir (to come)

  • je venais
  • tu venais
  • il/elle venait
  • nous venions
  • vous veniez
  • ils/elles venaient

vouloir (to want)

  • je voulais
  • tu voulais
  • il/elle voulait
  • nous voulions
  • vous vouliez
  • ils/elles voulaient

Once again, the conjugation of 2nd group verbs respect some kind of termination pattern, however, less obvious than in the 1st group. Some of the 2nd group verbs conjugate like ” finir ” (termination pattern : -ssais, -ssais, -ssait, -ssions, -ssiez, -ssaient) and others, like ” venir “conjugate as the 1st group verbs. Once again, you may have noticed that the imparfait conjugation is less irregular than the present tense.

Conjugation of the 3rd group verbs

boire (to drink)

  • je buvais
  • tu buvais
  • il/elle buvait
  • nous buvions
  • vous buviez
  • ils/elles buvaient

vendre (to sell)

  • je vendais
  • tu vendais
  • il/elle vendait
  • nous vendions
  • vous vendiez
  • ils/elles vendaient

vivre (to live)

  • je vivais
  • tu vivais
  • il/elle vivait
  • nous vivions
  • vous viviez
  • ils/elles vivaient

The 3rd group is still a mess but less than in the present tense.They respect the same termination pattern as the 1st group verbs (-ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient) but might be subject to some alteration. However, in most cases, the alteration is very simple : the infinitive termination -re is dropped and replaced by the conjugation termination.

” être ” (to be) and ” avoir ” (to have)

The auxiliary verbs être and avoir are as irregular in imparfait as in the present tense. Let’s take a close look at them.

être (to be)

  • j’étais
  • tu étais
  • il/elle était
  • nous étions
  • vous étiez
  • ils/elles étaient

avoir (to have)

  • j’avais
  • tu avais
  • il/elle avait
  • nous avions
  • vous aviez
  • ils/elles avaient

Imparfait Usage

Basically, the imparfait tense is used to express actions which were in progress in a past portion of time, whithout specifying with precision when they began and when they completed. In general, the imparfait is used when the action has taken a certain amount of time, i.e. it was not an instant action. Examples :

  • Je marchais silencieusement dans la rue (I was silently walking on the street)
  • A cette époque, je vivais pauvrement (At this time, I was living poorly)

Most of the time, the imparfait is employed in French in place of the progressive past (progressive preterit) in English. This rule works very well.

Time on the Clock

The common way to ask for the time in French is :

Quelle heure est-il ? (What time is it ? literally : what hour is it)

The answer is :

Il est deux heures (it is two o’clock)

Il est trois heures (it is three o’clock)

Il est trois heures cinq (it is five past three)

Il est trois heures dix (it is ten past three)

Il est trois heures et quart (it is a quarter past three)

Il est trois heures vingt (it is twenty past three)

Il est trois heures vingt-cinq (it is twenty five past three)

Il est trois heures et demi (it is half past three)

Il est quatre heures moins vingt-cinq (it is twenty five to four)

Il est quatre heures moins vingt (it is twenty to four)

Il est quatre heures moins le quart (it is a quarter to four)

Il est quatre heures moins dix (it is ten to four)

Il est quatre heures moins cinq (it is five to four)

Il est midi (it is noon, 12:00 am) or

Il est minuit (it is midnight, 12:00 pm)

As you see, French people express the time in a way similar to English people. There are some – minor differencies however :

  1. for the first half hour : il est cinq heures vingt could be literally translated as it is five hours plus twenty minutes.
  2. for the second half hour : il est cinq heures moins dix could be literally translated by it is five hours minus ten minutes.

The French counterparts of quarter and half are respectively quart and demi.

To distinguish the time in the morning and in the afternoon, English people use the abbreviations a.m. (ante meridiem) and p.m.(post meridiem). French people don’t use these abbreviations. In French, the time in the morning and in the afternoon are specified by respectively adding du matin (in the morning) or de l’après-midi (in the afternoon) after the time. Examples :

  • trois heures du matin = 3:00 am
  • cin heures et demi de l’après-di = 5:30 pm

In addition, there is a more formal way to make this distinction which works like this :

Time on the clock French time
1:00 am une heure
1:00 pm treize heures (13:00)
2:00 am deux heures
2:00 pm quatorze heures (14:00)
2:15 am deux heures quinze
2:15 pm quatorze heures quinze (14:15)
2:30 am deux heures trente
2:30 pm quatorze heures trente (14:30)
2:45 am deux heures quarante cinq
2:45 pm quatorze heures quarante cinq (14:45)
2:50 am deux heures cinquante
2:50 pm quatorze heures cinquante (14:50)
12:00 am douze heures or midi
12:00 pm minuit

This way of expressing the time is utilized in the train stations, the airports, at work, in any sort of time-tables. But in the day-to-day life, people prefer to say trois heures de l’après-midi rather than quinze heures.

continued in part three……

Belajar Bahasa Perancis(part one)

Setelah kita belajar bahasa rusia…

sekarang waktunya kita belajar BAHASA PERANCIS….

tp maaf2 aja yach artikel bahasa perancis saya menggunakan bahasa inggris…

jd yg tdk tw, siapkan kamus/translator ato bka sja google translate

hihihihi… 🙂


Lesson 1 – Pronunciation guidelines

A written course in not the best suited means to learn how to pronounce a language, especially when you have never heard it. In addition, the way people pronounce their own language may tremendously vary from one place to another and is strongly dependent on the local culture, customs and neighbouring influences. This remark is particularly true for French language : there are startling pronunciation differences between the French spoken in southern France, in northern France, in Belgium, in Switzerland, in Québec and in the many French speaking African countries (Marocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Zaïre, Burundi, Rwanda, Cameroon, Gabon, Niger, Burkina Fasso, Tchad, etc.), in such a way that people may not understand each other! So, you understand that we have to agree on a standard. Hopefully, such a standard exists and is commonly referred to as “international French” also improperly called “Parisian French”. The aim of this first lesson is to give you guidelines for the pronunciation of the main French sounds, i.e. single vowels, vowels combinations and the consonants whose pronunciation differs from the English one. This is not an exhaustive description of the French pronunciation since it does not make any sense to try to cover all aspects of the pronunciation of a language until you can hear the actual sounds.

French Speaking Contries Image

As mentioned above, learning how to pronounce a language from a written course is a tough job. Some of you have suggested to include sound files in the text to ease the comprehension of the following lesson. It is now available !!! To take advantage of this new feature, you are required to have the software MPLAYER.EXE on your PC since the format of the sound files is .WAV. MPLAYER comes with the multimedia kit of WINDOWS 3.x.
The letters or the words you can hear are indicated by the following sign headphone.
So, French pronunciation will be no longer a dark mystery for you !!!

For MAC users, a freeware called SoundApp is able to read and play various sound file formats. Especially, it can convert WAV files into Macintosh AIFF or SND files. Click here to download it from MIT. Also, for UNIX users, the SOX program converts WAV files into AU files. Click here to download it from the Netherlands. Though English and French share a good bunch of words, their pronunciation is completely different. Moreover, in French there are some sounds that does not even exist in English. Let’s start with the vowels.

1. Single vowels

  • headphonea
    • Pronunciation: like the first “a” in “marmalade” or in “heart”, but just a little bit less open.
    • Examples: table (table), sac (bag), chat (cat), rat (rat), baggage (luggage), sa (his/her), bras (arm), matin (morning).
    • Similar sounds: â (more open than a)
  • headphonee
    • Pronunciation: like the indefinite article “a” in English with a sharper sound, or like the second a in “marmalade”.
    • Examples: cheveu (hair), deux (two), second [segon] (second), oeuvre (work, as in master works), soeur (sister), heure (hour), beurre (butter).
    • Similar sounds: “eu” and “oeu”. The latter one is more open than e and eu.
  • headphonei
    • Pronunciation: like the English “ee” but shorter.
    • Examples: pipe (pipe), minute (minute), courir (to run), midi (midday), nid (nest).
  • headphoneo
    • Pronunciation:two different sounds:
      1. an open “o” more or less as the English “more” and “for”
      2. a closed one like the English “go” and “low”
    • Most of the times the “o” in French is open. It is closed when located at the end of the word. Note that the difference between open and closed “o” is not as stressed as it is in English between the words “open” and “control”.
    • Examples:
      1. Open o: headphonebotte (boot), grotte (cave), développer (to develop), homme (man)
      2. Closed o: headphonevélo (bicycle), indigo (indigo)
    • Similar sounds: (to a closed o): “au”, “eau”, “ô”. Examples: eau (water), auto (car), contrôle (control).
  • headphoneu
    • Pronunciation: the French sound for “u” does not exist in English. While in most languages “u” is pronounced like the u in “bush”, in French it differs dramatically. The French “u” is exactly the same sound as the German “ü”. As we’re going to see later, the sound “u” as the English “bush” exists in French as well, but it is formed by the vowel combination “ou”.
    • Examples: voiture (car), minute, humain (human).
  • y
    • Pronunciation: pronounced the same way as a double French “i”.
    • Examples: noyer [noi-ier] (to drown), rayer [rai-ier] (to scratch), loyer [loi-ier] (lease), pays [pai-i] (country).


  1. In most cases, the final e in a word is not pronounced. Examples : bouche [bouch’] (mouth), jambe [jamb’] (leg), lampe [lamp’] (lamp).
  2. When followed by a doubled consonant (l, t, p, r, m, n), e is pronounced like the English -ay as in “say”, “bay”, but without the glide towards i and more open. In French, this sound is referred to as “è” (e with a grave accent). Examples : pelle [pèl’] (shovel), mettre [mèttr’] (to put), lettre (letter), terre [tèr’] (land).

2. Accentuated vowels

One of the most striking differences between the French and the English words is the use of accented characters in French. Almost every vowel – excepting “y” – can be accentuated. Some accents change the sound of the vowel, others don’t. The accents (shown in conjunction with the letter e) are:

  • the grave accent – è
  • the sharp accent – é
  • the circumflex accent – ê
  • the diaeresis ë
  • Accents which change the vowel sound

    headphoneé is pronounced like the English -ay as in “say”, “bay”, but without the glide towards i.
    Same thing for headphoneè and ê but with a much more open sound.
    Examples : headphonefrère (brother), père (father), mère (mother), événement (event), headphoneblé (wheat), bête (beast or stupid), headphonetête (head).
    A diaeresis on an “i” makes the syllable sound as if there were two syllables. Examples : naïf (naïve) is pronounced [na-if] instead of [nèf] (ai is normally pronounced as an è in French).
    â is more open than an “a”. Example : mâcher (to chew), pâte (paste)
    ô is more closed than “o”. Example : hôte (host), contrôle (control)

    Accents which do not change the vowel sound

    In all other situations, the accent does not affect the sound of the vowel i.e. : à, ë î ù, ü. So, what’s the need for them? The answer is simple : no need ! But French people are reluctant to change the spelling of their language (as English people !) as opposed to Spanish and German people. Most of the French accentuated characters have historical origins. For instance, the “^” was used to indicate that in old French, the vowel was followed by an “s”. Thus, the modern French words forêt (forest), hâte (haste), hôte (host), pâte (paste) were spelled as follows in old French : forest, haste, hoste, paste. As you can notice, there were identical as their English counterparts, or, more precisely, these English words directly come from old French !

    3. Vowels and consonants combinations

    • headphoneou
      • Pronunciation: like the “u” in “bush”
      • Examples: bouche (mouth), genou (knee), cou (neck)
    • headphoneoi
      • Pronunciation: pronounced like the combination “oa”
      • Examples: oie (goose), doigt [doa] (finger)
    • headphoneau, eau
      • Pronunciation: “ô”
      • Examples: eau (water), bateau (ship)
    • headphoneai
      • Pronunciation: “ê”
      • Examples: maison [mèson] (house), j’ai (I have), lait (milk), mauvais (bad)
    • headphoneeu, oeu
      • Pronunciation: “e”
      • Examples: feu (fire), bleu (blue)
    • headphoneui
      • Pronunciation: “ü-i” (two sounds)
      • Examples: aujourd’hui (today), fruit (fruit)
    • headphoneer, et
      • Pronunciation: “é”
      • Examples: boucher (butcher), boulanger (baker). Exceptions: hier [ièr’] (yesterday), et (and)
    • headphoneon
      • Examples: bon (good)
    • headphonean
      • Examples: an (year)
    • headphoneen
      • Examples: vent (wind)
    • headphonein, ain, ein
      • Examples: matin (morning), main (hand), pain (bread)

    4. Consonants

    Most of consonants in French are pronounced in a fairly same way as in English, however, there are some exceptions. In the following list, we’re only going to review the consonants whose pronunciation differs in French and in English.

    General rule
    The following consonants : d, n, p, r, s, t, x, are generally not pronounced when located at the end of a word (note that they are not pronounced but they generally change the sound of the preceding vowels). Conversely, all the other consonants (i.e. the following consonants : c, f, k, l, q, z. The other consonants like b, j, g, v, w, etc. are rarely or never located at the end of a word) are pronounced. As many good rule, there are lots of exceptions ! In the progression of this course, the pronunciation rule will be indicated when necessary.
    Examples : trois [troi] (three), vent [ven] (wind), fonds [fon] (fund).
    Exceptions : see numbers.
    The French “r” sound is fairly different from the english one. In English, “r” is soft, round. In contrary, in French, “r” is guttural and must be pronounced like Scottish people do (maybe, a little bit less guttural !).
    The French “j” is pronounced like the English “g”. Examples : jardin (garden), jour (day).
    In French, the pronunciation of “g” depends on the subsequent character. If followed by “a”, “u”, or “o”, “g” is pronounced like the “g” in “garden”. If followed by “e” or “i”, it is pronounced like the second “g” in “language”. Examples : langage (language), langue (tongue).
    The French sound for “gn” is very similar to the Spanish “ñ” or like the sound “nié”. Examples : gagner [gañé] (to win), mignon [meeñon] (cute).
    The French “ch” is pronounced like the English “sh”. Examples : chambre [shambr’] (room), chat (cat), chaussure (shoe).
    In French, the character “h” is not pronounced when located at the beginning of a word. Examples : haricot [arico] (bean), homme [om’] (man), hâche [ach’] (ax)
    As in English, most French words add an “s” when plural, however, the last “s” in a word is never pronounced. Examples : maison and its plural form maisons are pronounced the same way. There are, however, some exceptions to this rule, for instance, plus (more) is pronounced [plüss].
    1. the pronunciation rules which apply to “s” and “ss” when located within a word, are the same as in English.
    2. when a word begins with an “s”, the “s” is pronounced like “ss” (soft “s”). It is actually the same rule as in English.

    5. Numbers 1-10

    1. headphoneun
    2. headphonedeux [deu]
    3. headphonetrois [troi]
    4. headphonequatre [catr’]
    5. headphonecinq [sinc]
    6. headphonesix [seess]
    7. headphonesept [sèt’]
    8. headphonehuit [uit’]
    9. headphoneneuf [neuf’] with an open “e”
    10. headphonedix [diss’]

    Lesson 2 – Articles and Genders

    1. Gender in French

    We have a bad and a good news for you : as opposed to English, French words have a gender. That’s the bad news. The good news is that French words can have only two genders : masculine or feminine. Unfortunately, there is an additional bad news : the distribution of the words in the masculine and the feminine genders does not comply to any logical rule. Therefore, the only way to know the gender of a word is to learn it by heart!

    The gender is determined by the article, either definite (the in English) or indefinite (a/an in English).

    • Masculine definite article: headphonele [leu]
    • Feminine definite article: headphonela
    • Masculine indefinite article: headphoneun [nasal sound which can be derived from the English sound “un” as explained in the first lesson]
    • Feminine indefinite article: headphoneune [?n’]

    The genders of the words introduced in the previous lesson are :

    When a word begins with a vowel, the definite article that precedes the word is contracted whatever the gender is :

    • une assiette (a plate), l’assiette (the plate)
    • un oiseau (a bird), l’oiseau (the bird)
    • un animal (an animal)l’animal (the animal)
    • une araîgnée (a spider), l’araîgnée (the spider)
    • une auto (a car), l’auto (the car)

    Previously, we said that there was no logical rules to find out the gender of the French words. Actually, there are some…


    Almost every profession has two genders depending on whether it is a man or a woman who is accomplishing the work. Examples :

    un boulanger
    a male baker
    une boulangère
    a female baker
    un boucher
    a male butcher
    une bouchère
    a female butcher

    The following list gives the masculine and feminine form of some professions:

    • Masculine: un conducteur
    • Feminine: une conductrice
    Airplane pilot
    • Masculine: un aviateur
    • Feminine: une aviatrice
    • Masculine: un ingénieur
    • Feminine: une ingénieure
    • Masculine: un professeur
    • Feminine: une professeure
    • Masculine: un président
    • Feminine: une présidente
    • Masculine: un ministre
    • Feminine: une ministre
    • Masculine: un ouvrier
    • Feminine: une ouvrière


    Like professions, most animals may have both genders (male and female). As opposed to professions, the way the female form is built does not comply to any general rule and consequently, must be learnt by heart. The following is a list of examples:

    • Masculine: un chat [sha]
    • Feminine: une chatte [shat’]
    • Masculine: un chien [shi-in]
    • Feminine: une chienne [shièn’]
    • Masculine: un lion [li-on]
    • Feminine: une lionne [li-on’]
    • Masculine: un tigre
    • Feminine: une tigresse [tigrès’]
    • Masculine: un cheval
    • Feminine: une jument
    • Masculine: un lapin
    • Feminine: une lapine
    • Masculine: un rat
    • Feminine: une rate
    • Masculine: un porc, un cochon
    • Feminine: une truie [tr?-i]
    Bovine (cow/bull)
    • Masculine (bull): un taureau [toro]
    • Feminine (cow): une vache
    • Masculine: un âne
    • Feminine: une ânesse

    As you may have noticed in the previous examples, the feminine form is often derived from the masculine by appending an “e” to the word. This rule is applicable in most cases and leads to a more general one : the feminine form of nouns and adjectives is built by appending an “e” to the masculine form of the word. This rule is general enough that you should learn it.

    2. Plural articles

    The plural form of the definite and indefinite articles is very simple for it does not vary according to the gender:

    • Definite article: les (both feminine and masculine)
    • Undefinite article: des (both feminine and masculine)

    Plural rule: In French, the plural form of nouns and adjectives is built by appending an “s” (like in English). However, in many cases, this rule is not applicable, and you will be required to learn by heart the irregular form of plural form of these exceptions (lesson 4). Examples:

    • Singular: le chat
    • Plural: les chats
    • Singluar: la table
    • Plural: les tables
    • Singluar: un chien
    • Plural: des chiens
    • Singluar: une lionne
    • Plural: des lionnes
    • Singluar: un oiseau
    • Plural: des oiseaux
      oiseau is one of these exceptions.

    3. Some usual expressions

    Lesson 3 – Pronouns and Verbs

    The verb groups

    In English, the infinite tense is built by adding ” to ” in front of the verb : to say, to see, to eat, etc. In French, the infinite tense is indicated by appending -er, -ir or -re to the verb. Examples :


    parler (to talk) chanter (to sing) manger (to eat) marcher (to walk) aller (to go) écouter (to listen to) laver (to wash) commencer (to begin)


    finir (to end) mourir (to die) courir (to run) sentir (to feel) avoir (to have) venir (to come) savoir (to know) vouloir (to want)


    sourire (to smile) vivre (to live) boire (to drink) entendre (to hear) être (to be) conduire (to drive) vendre (to sell)

    The verbs ending with -er are referred to as ” first group ” verbs, the verbs ending with -ir compose the ” second group ” and the verbs with the ending -re form the ” third group “. It is useful to distribute the verbs between these 3 groups because different conjugation rules apply to each group as we’re going to see.

    The pronouns

    • headphoneje (I)
    • headphonetu (you informal form or “tutoiement” in French)
    • headphoneil / headphoneelle [il/el’] (he/she it does not exist in French)
    • headphonenous [nou] (we)
    • headphonevous [vou] (you when talking to more than one person or formal form “vouvoiement” in French)
    • headphoneils / headphoneelles [il/el’] (they)


    1. in French, there is no neuter pronoun (” it ” in English). That means that things can be either masculine or feminine as we mentioned in the previous lesson,
    2. in English, the 2nd person pronoun is ” you ” whether in singular or plurial. Formally, in French, if you talk to one single person, you use ” tu ” and if you talk to a group of people, you must use ” vous “. In fact, the ” tu ” form (or ” tutoiement ” in French) is commonly used between people of same age, or same social rank. When talking to a older person or to somebody above you in rank (your boss for example), you must, most of the time, employ the ” vous ” form (or ” vouvoiement in French). ” tu ” marks familiarity while ” vous ” marks respect.
    3. When the verb starts with a vowel, you must use j’ instead of je.

    Present tense

    In French, there are much more verb tenses than in English. Hopefully, a large number of them are rarely, or never, used in the spoken language. The simplest verb tense is the present which is used to describe actions that occur in the present time. Conjugating verbs in the present tense is very easy in English because the verb does not change, except for the 3rd singular person where a ” s ” is appended. In French, the present tense conjugation is not so straight forward. The verbs termination varies according to the person and the verb group and might be altered. Let’s start with the 1st group verbs :

    Conjugation of the 1st group verbs

    chanter (to sing)

    • je chante [shant’]
    • tu chantes [shant’]
    • il/elle chante [shant’]
    • nous chantons [shanton]
    • vous chantez [shanté]
    • ils/elles chantent [shant’]

    parler (to speak, to talk)

    • je parle [parl’]
    • tu parles [parl’]
    • il/elle parle [parl’]
    • nous parlons [parlon]
    • vous parlez [parlé]
    • ils/elles parlent [parl’]

    écouter (to listen to)

    • j’écoute [écout’]
    • tu écoutes [écout’]
    • il/elle écoute [écout’]
    • nous écoutons [écouton]
    • vous écoutez [écouté]
    • ils/elles écoutent [écout’]

    You can clearly see the conjugation pattern applying to the the termination of the 1st group verbs.

    • 1st person singular : -e
    • 2nd person singular : -es
    • 3rd person singular : -e
    • 1st person plural : -ons
    • 2nd person plural : -ez
    • 3rd person plural : -ent

    You should be able to conjugate any other 1st group verb. Let’s try ” aller ” : j’alle, tu alles, etc. Unfortunately, it’s wrong ! ! ” Aller ” is one of the so many irregular verbs. The conjugation is rather :

    • je vais [vé]
    • tu vas [va]
    • il/elle va
    • nous allons
    • vous allez
    • ils/elles vont [von]

    Now you can figure out why people are used to saying that the French language is difficult !

    Conjugation of the 2nd group verbs

    finir (to finish)

    • je finis
    • tu finis]
    • il/elle finit
    • nous finissons
    • vous finissez
    • ils/elles finissent

    venir (to come)

    • je viens
    • tu viens
    • il/elle vient
    • nous venons
    • vous venez
    • ils/elles viennent

    vouloir (to want)

    • je veux
    • tu veux
    • il/elle veut
    • nous voulons
    • vous voulez
    • ils/elles veulent

    Once again, the conjugation of 2nd group verbs respect some kind of termination pattern, however, less obvious than in the 1st group. Some of the 2nd group verbs conjugate like ” finir ” (termination pattern : -s, -s, -t, -ssons, -ssez, -ssent) and otherslike ” venir ” (termination pattern : -s, -s, -t, -ons, -ez, -ent). The case of ” vouloir ” is special for it is an irregular verb. There is no means to find out easily which pattern apply to a given 2nd group verb, excepting learning it by heart.

    Conjugation of the 3rd group verbs

    boire (to drink)

    • je bois
    • tu bois
    • il/elle boit
    • nous buvons
    • vous buvez
    • ils/elles boivent

    vendre (to sell)

    • je vends
    • tu vends
    • il/elle vend
    • nous vendons
    • vous vendez
    • ils/elles vendent

    vivre (to live)

    • je vis
    • tu vis
    • il/elle vit
    • nous vivons
    • vous vivez
    • ils/elles vivent

    The 3rd group is a real mess since most of the verbs which belong to it are irregular. Nevertheless, they respect a termination pattern (-s, -s, -t, -ons, -ez, -ent) but are altered. Once again, no general rule can be drew up. I hope you have a good memory !

    ” être ” (to be) and ” avoir ” (to have)

    As in many european languages, ” être ” (to be) and ” avoir ” (to have) play a special role in French. They are also referred to as auxilliaries. French language makes use of only two auxiliary verbs (être and avoir) while English has many of them (to have, will, would, shall, should, can, could, must, might, ought to, etc.). On one hand, ” être ” and ” avoir ” are strongly irregular but in the other hand, they are used very often. Consequently, their conjugation must be well known. In the present tense their conjugation are :

    être (to be)

    • je suis [süi]
    • tu es [é]
    • il/elle est [é]
    • nous sommes [some]
    • vous êtes [èt’]
    • ils/elles sont [son]

    avoir (to have)

    • j’ai [jè]
    • tu as [a]
    • il/elle a
    • nous avons
    • vous avez
    • ils/elles ont [on]

    Despite the irregular behaviour of these verbs, the conjugation terminations respect, more or less, the pattern we previuosly noticed. Note that this remark is applicable to the verb ” aller ” as well.


    Some colours

    • bleu (blue)
    • rouge (red)
    • blanc (white)
    • noir (black)
    • vert (green)
    • jaune (yellow)
    • rose (rose)
    • orange (orange)
    • gris (grey)
    • marron/brun (brown)

    This third leson is tough but it is worth learning it because verbs are a major component in sentences. So, don’t give up now!

    Lesson 4 – Adjectives and Plural

    1. Adjectives

    In the second lesson we saw that in French nouns have a gender : they can be either masculine or feminine. Some of them can be both and the feminine form is derived from the masculine by appending a ” e “. We also learned how the plural affects the nouns, i.e. by appending a ” s “, in most of the times. To sum up, we can say that the gender and the number (singular or plural) affect the nouns termination, by appending either a ” e ” or a ” s ” (or sometimes something more complex).

    There is an other kind of words in French which change in accordance to the gender and the number : the adjectives. Adjectives change according to the gender and the number of the noun which they qualify. The rules which we drew up for the nouns are applicable to the adjectives :

    Adjectives Concordance Rules

    • Rule 1 – Concordance with the gender When the noun which an adjective qualifies is feminine, an ” e ” is appended to the adjective, if it does not already end with an ” e “.
    • Rule 2 – Concordance with the number When an adjective refers to a noun in the plurial form or more than 1 noun, a ” s ” is appended to it, if it does not end with a ” s “, a” z ” or a ” x “.
    • Rule 3 – The rules 1 and 2 are cumulative, i.e. if an adjective qualifies a feminine and plurial noun, it takes an ” e ” and a ” s ” at the end.
    • Rule 4 – Masculine is stronger ! When an adjective refers to a group of masculine and feminine nouns, only the masculine concordance rule applies. This rule is also known as ” the masculine wins over the feminine “, which is the more macho French grammar rule !

    Note : In most cases, the adjectives follow the noun or the group of nouns they refer. However, this remark is not rigid and you can actually put an adjective before the noun it qualifies but be careful, by doing this, you may change the meaning ! (idiomatic form).

    Examples :

    • un homme petit (a small man) / un petit homme (a kid)
    • une femme bonne (a good woman) / une bonne femme (a woman with a pejorative meaning)
    • une voiture sale (a dirty car) / une sale voiture (a awful car)

    Some adjectives are placed before the noun they qualify rather than after.

    Examples :

    • grand (big, large) : we say ” une grande voiture ” (a big car) rather than ” une voiture grande “
    • beau (nice) : we say ” un beau graçon ” (a nice boy) rather than ” un graçon beau “

    Note that, in these examples, both forms are grammatically correct but French speaking people prefer the first one.

    Examples of adjective concordance rules

    Original sentence : Il conduit un camion bleu (He drives a blue truck).

    Let’s apply the fourth rules we mentioned above :

    • Rule 1 – concordance with the gender: Il conduit une voiture bleue
    • Rule 2 – concordance with the number : Il conduit des camions bleus
    • Rule 3 – accumulation of rules 1 and 2: Il conduit des voitures bleues
    • Rule 4 – ” masculine wins over feminine ” : Il conduit un camion et une voiture bleus

    2. Some adjectives

    • big or tall
    masculine singular : grand
    feminine singular : grande
    masculine plural: grands
    feminine plural: grandes
    • small
    masculine singular : petit
    feminine singular : petite
    masculine plural: petits
    feminine plural: petites
    • nice
    masculine singular : beau
    feminine singular : belle
    masculine plural: beaux
    feminine plural: belles
    • ugly
    masculine singular : laid
    feminine singular : laide
    masculine plural: laids
    feminine plural: laides
    • good
    masculine singular : bon
    feminine singular : bonne
    masculine plural: bons
    feminine plural: bonnes
    • bad
    masculine singular : mauvais
    feminine singular : mauvaise
    masculine plural: mauvais
    feminine plural: mauvaises
    • high
    masculine singular : haut
    feminine singular : haute
    masculine plural: hauts
    feminine plural: hautes
    • low
    masculine singular : bas
    feminine singular : basse
    masculine plural: bas
    feminine plural: basses
    • heavy
    masculine singular : lourd
    feminine singular : lourde
    masculine plural: lourds
    feminine plural: lourdes
    • light
    masculine singular : léger
    feminine singular : légère
    masculine plural: légers
    feminine plural: légères
    • clean
    masculine singular : propre
    feminine singular : propre
    masculine plural: propres
    feminine plural: propres
    • dirty
    masculine singular : sale
    feminine singular : sale
    masculine plural: sales
    feminine plural: sales
    • long
    masculine singular : long
    feminine singular : longue
    masculine plural: longs
    feminine plural: longues
    • short
    masculine singular : court
    feminine singular : courte
    masculine plural: courts
    feminine plural: courtes

    From this list, you can derive the following additional concordance rules which apply most of the time :

    1. when the masculine singular form of the adjectif ends with a e, the feminine form is identical to the masculine one (e.g. sale / sale)
    2. when the masculine singular form of the adjectif ends with a n, the feminine form is derived by appending a e and by doubling the ending n (e.g. bon / bonne)
    3. when the masculine singular form of the adjectif ends with a er, the feminine form end by ère (e.g. léger / légère)
    4. when the masculine singular form of the adjectif ends with a eau or au, the plural form is composed by appending a x and the feminine form is built by replacing eau or au by elle (e.g. beau / belle / beaux)

    3. Our first sentences

    Very simple sentences can be built using a subject, an adjective and the verb être (to be) such as :

    • La maison est grande (The house is big).
    • La voiture bleue est chère (The blue car is expensive).
    • Tu es grand (You are tall).
    • Elle est belle (She is nice).
    • Les garçons et les filles sont grands (The boys and the girls are tall) – Note that in this example the “macho” rule applies because the adjective grand is only in concordance with the noun garçons.
    • Nous sommes intelligents (We are smart).

    Note that the concordance rules apply to the adjective according to the gender and the number of the subject. I advise you to buid such sentences using the few words you have already learnt. It’s a good exercise which make you practice the feminine and plurial forms of the adjectives as well as the present tense conjugation of the verb être. Have a good time.

    4. More Numbers

    • 11 – onze (onz)
    • 12 – douze
    • 13 – treize [trèz’]
    • 14 – quatorze
    • 15 – quinze
    • 16 – seize [sèz’]
    • 17 – dix-sept
    • 18 – dix-huit [dizuit’]
    • 19 – dix-neuf
    • 20 – vingt [vin]
    • 21 – vingt et un [vinté un]
    • 22 – vingt-deux [vint deu]
    • 23 – vingt-trois [vint troi]
    • 30 – trente
    • 31 – trente et un
    • 32 – trente-deux
    • 40 – quarante
    • 41 – quarante et un
    • 42 – quarante-deux
    • 50 – cinquante
    • 51 – cinquante et un
    • 52 – cinquante-deux
    • 60 – soixante [soissant’]
    • 61 – soixante et un [soissanté un]
    • 62 – soixante-deux
    • 70 – soixante-dix (septante [pronounce the p] in Belgium and Switzerland)
    • 71 – soixante-et onze (septante un in Belgium and Switzerland) 72 – soixante-douze
    • 73 – soixante-treize
    • 74 – soixante-quatorze
    • 75 – soixante-quinze
    • 76 – soixante-seize
    • 77 – soixante-dix sept
    • 78 – soixante-dix huit
    • 79 – soixante-dix neuf
    • 80 – quatre-vingt (octante in Switzerland)
    • 81 – quatre-vingt-un (octante un in Switzerland)
    • 90 – quatre-vingt-dix (nonante in Switzerland) >
    • 91 – quatre-vingt-onze (nonante un in Switzerland)
    • 92 – quatre-vingt-douze (nonante trois in Switzerland)
    • 93 – quatre-vingt-treize
    • 94 – quatre-vingt-quatorze
    • 95 – quatre-vingt-quinze
    • 96 – quatre-vingt-seize
    • 97 – quatre-vingt-dix-sept
    • 98 – quatre-vingt-dix-huit
    • 99 – quatre-vingt-dix-neuf
    • 100 – cent [ssen]
    • 200 – deux cents
    • 1.000 – mille [meel’]
    • 10.000 – dix mille

    Lesson 5 – Sentences Structures

    Now, it’s time to build sentences. Stand alone words are rarely useful. To express an idea, whether complex or not, you need to combine words in order to build up sentences. French language distinguishes three basic sentence structures : normal sentence structure, negative sentence structure and interrogative sentence structure.

    A typical French sentence is composed of the following elements :

    • The people who or the thing which does the action : it is referred to as the subject of the sentence.
    • the action : this is the verb.
    • the people who or the object which is affected by the action : this element is usually called the accusative or complément d’objet direct in French grammar. We’re going to adopt the term accusative (abbreviation : ACC).
    • the circumtances under which the action takes place (the time, the location, etc.) : this element is known as the complément circonstanciel in French. We’re going to call it circumstances (abbreviation : CIR)

    These elements play the role of elementary bricks that compose a sentence. French, as English, is a positional language, i.e. the function played by words in the sentence depends on their position in the sentence. So, each kind of sentence is built according to a specific structure or framework.

    These structures are very useful because they indicate the postition of the various elements (various bricks) in a given kind of sentence (normal, negative or interrogative). In the context of spoken language they work pretty well. Written language is often more sophisticated than spoken language and leads to more complicated sentences. Before reviewing the various sentences structures in the present tense, let’s introduce some prepositions

    1. Some Prepositions

    • dans (in)
    • à (to, at)
    • de (from)
    • sur (on)

    Examples :

    Je vis dans une grande ville (I live in a big city).
    Les enfants vont à l’école (The children are going to school).
    Il vient de France (He comes from France).
    Nous marchons sur la route (We are walking on the road).

    2. Normal Sentences

    The basic framework of a nomral sentence is :


    This structure is comparable to the English one. Examples :

    subject verb ACC CIR meaning
    Tu chantes une chanson dans la rue You sing a song in the street
    Il conduit la voiture tous les jours He drives the car every day
    Le boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie The baker sells bread in the bakery

    3. Negative Sentences

    The basic framework of a negative sentence is :

    SUBJECT + ne + VERB + pas + ACC + CIR The words ne … pas play a role similar to do not in English. While do not is located before the verb, in French the verb is put inbetween ne and pas. Excepting this difference, the structure of a French negative sentence is similar to its English counterpart.

    Examples :

    • Tu ne chantes pas une chanson dans la rue.
    • Il ne conduit pas la voiture tous les jours.
    • Le boulanger ne vend pas de pain dans la boulangerie.
    subject verb ACC CIR meaning
    Tu ne chantes pas une chanson dans la rue You do not sing a song in the street
    Il ne conduit pas la voiture tous les jours He does not drive the car every day
    Le boulanger ne vend pas le pain dans la boulangerie The baker does not sell bread in the bakery

    4. Interrogative Sentences

    The primary goal of interrogative sentences is to ask questions !! That’s what we call in French a “la palissade” or “un truisme” (something obvious). When asking a question, you may want to know who (qui in French) or what (que in French) is performing the action, when (quand in French) the action is performed, how (comment in French) or where ( in French) it is performed, etc. Most of questions need an interrogative conjunction which indicate what we want to know. The basic interrogative conjunctions are :

    • qui (who)
    • que (what)
    • pourquoi (why)
    • comment (how)
    • quand (when)
    • où (where)
    • combien (how many, how much)

    Compared to the normal and negative structures, the interrogative sentences are a little bit more complicated. Basically, French language provides two interrogative structures : a spoken laguage oriented structure and a written language oriented one. As the spoken language is always simpler than the written one, the first structure is easier to understand. So, let’s start with it.

    The basic structure is :

    Interrogative conjunction + est-ce que + SUBJECT + VERB + ACC + CIR + ?

    Once again, the group of words est-ce que plays a role similar to do in the English interrogative sentences. As we see, the structure of a French interrogative sentence is similar to its English couterpart. Note that the interrogative conjunction is optional depending on what you want to know.

    Examples :

    Question : Est-ce que tu chantes une chanson dans la rue ? (Do you sing a song in the street ?
    Answer : oui (yes) or non (no)
    Question : Qu’est-ce que tu chantes dans la rue ? (What do you sing in the street ?)
    Answer : Je chante une chanson. (I sing a song)
    Question : Est-ce qu’il conduit la voiture tous les jours ? (Does he drive the car every day ?)
    Answer : Oui, il condui la voiture tous les jours. (Yes, he drives the car every day)
    Question : Quand est-ce qu’il conduit la voiture ? (When does he drive the car ?)
    Answer : Il conduit la voiture tous les jours. (He drives the car every day)
    Question : Est-ce que le boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie ? (Does the baker sell the bread in the bakery ?)
    Answer : oui (yes) or non (no)
    Question : Qui est-ce qui vend le pain dans la boulangerie ? (Who sells the bread in the bakery ?)
    Answer : Le boulanger. (The baker).
    Question : Combien as-tu de frères ? (How many brothers do you have ?)
    Answer : J’ai deux frères (I have two brothers) or simply : Deux (two).

    Notes :

    1. when que is followed by a word starting with a vowel, que is contracted in qu’ . This rule is illustrated in the examples Qu’est-ce qu’il and Est-ce qu’il and is general. We have already mentioned the same kind of contraction with the pronoun je (I) : je mange (I eat) and j’achète (I buy).
    2. when used with the conjunction qui (who) , est-ce que is replaced by est-ce qui resulting in Qui est-ce qui . This alteration is not a caprice of the French language but is conversely governed by strict grammatical rules. The que and the qui we are talking about here belong to the pronouns category, as we are going to see later in this course.
    3. Est-ce que does not depend on the gender nor the number of the subject while the English do must respect the conjugation pattern of to do. For the fisrt time, French is simpler than English !
    4. in French, when you answer a question by only oui (yes) or non (no) you are not required to repeat the subject and the verb as in English (yes I do, no we don’t, yes she does, etc.). However, it is not grammatically incorrect to repeat the subject. You may want to do that in order to emphasize your answer. If you do so, you have to repeat all the words of the question Examples : Oui, je chante une chanson (Yes, I do sing a song). Non, il ne conduit pas la voiture tous les jours (No, he does not drive the car every day)

    Now, we can introduce the second interrogative structure. Basically, this strcuture consists of switching the position of the subject and the verb like this :

    Interrogative conjunction + VERB + – + SUBJECT + ACC + CIR + ?

    Again, the interrogative conjunction is not mandatory. Examples :

    Questions Answers
    Chantes-tu une chanson dans la rue ? oui or non
    Où chantes-tu une chanson ? Dans la rue
    Que chantes-tu dans la rue ? Une chanson
    Conduit-il la voiture tous les jours ? oui or non
    Que conduit-il tous les jours ? La voiture
    Quand conduit-il la voiture ? Tous les jours

    It is very easy. However, the pattern only applies when the subject is a pronoun (je, tu, il/elle, nous, vous, ils/elles). Otherwise, it is not so straight forward. When the subject is not a pronoun, the interrogative structucture is :

    Interrogative conjunction + SUBJECT + VERB+ – + PRONOUN + ACC + CIR + ?

    The pronoun which is added must be in accordance to the number and the number of the subject.

    Examples :

    Normal sentence : Le Boulanger vend le pain dans la boulangerie.
    Interrogative sentences
    1. Le boulanger vend-il le pain la boulangerie ?
    2. Où le boulanger vend-il le pain ?
    3. Que le boulanger vend-il ?

    Explanations : “Le boulanger” is masculine singular The corresponding pronoun is “il”

    Normal sentence : La boulangère vend le pain dans la boulangerie.
    Interrogative sentences :
    1. La boulangère vend-elle le pain dans la boulangerie ?
    2. Où la boulangère vend-elle le pain ?
    3. Que la boulangère vend-elle ?

    Explanations : “La boulangère” is feminine and singular. The corresponding pronoun is “elle”

    Normal sentence : Les boulangères vendent le pain dans la boulangerie.
    Interrogative sentences :
    1. Les boulangères vendent-elles le pain dans la boulangerie ?
    2. Où les boulangères vendent-ellesle pain ?
    3. Que les boulangères vendent-elles ?

    Explanaitons : “Les boulangères” is feminine and plural. The corresponding pronoun is “elles”

    Normal sentence : Le boulanger et la boulangère vendent le pain dans la boulangerie.
    Interrogative sentences :
    1. Le boulanger et la boulangère vendent-ils le pain dans la boulangerie ?
    2. Où le boulanger et la boulangère vendent-ils le pain ?
    3. Que le boulanger et la boulangère vendent-ils ?

    Explanations : “Le boulanger et la boulangère” is a subject which comprises two people, therefore it is plural. As far as the gender is concerned, you have to remember the macho rule ” the masculine wins over the feminine “. Consequently the gender of this subject is masculine. The corresponding pronoun is then “ils”

    This fifth lesson ends the grammatical core of the course. In the next lessons, we’re going to focus on the vocabulary and the language by itself i.e. usual expressions, familiar expressions and idiomatic expressions. Other major verb tenses (past, future and conditonal) will be introduce at a steady pace. So don’t miss the next lessons.

    5. Exercises

    Build up the neagtive and interrogative sentences for the following normal sentences as shown in the example below :

    • normal sentence : Pierre chante une chanson dans la rue (Pierre is singing a song in the street)
    • negative sentence : Pierre ne chante pas une chason dans la rue (Pierre is not singing a song in the street)
    • interrogative sentence #1 : Où Pierre chante t-il une chanson ? Answer : dans la rue
    • interrogative sentence #2 : Que chante Pierre dans la rue ? Answer : une chanson
    • interrogative sentence #3 : Qui chante une chanson dans la rue ? Answer : Pierre

    List of normal sentences :

    1. Nous conduisons une voiture dans la ville (We’re driving a car in the city)
    2. Monsieur et Madame Dupont habitent une maison à Toulouse (Mr. and Mrs Dupont live in a house in Toulouse)
    3. Elle achète un gâteau dans la pâtisserie (She buys a cake in the bakery)
    4. Les enfants jouent au football dans le jardin (The children play soccer in the garden)

     continued in part two…..


    Contoh Percakapan Bahasa Rusia





    Tidak seperti umumnya bahasa-bahasa lain didunia, kalimat untuk menanyakan nama dalam Bahasa Rusia tidak menggunakan formasi kata “Siapa namamu?’, melainkan dengan susunan kata “Bagaimana anda dipanggil?”. Untuk memudahkan proses penerjemahan, formasi kata ini, yang juga dapat ditemukan dalam Bahasa Mandarin, diterjemahkan menjadi “Siapa namamu?”.

    Виктор : Здравствуйте, мы не знакомы?

    : zdravstvuitje, my nye znakomy?/

    : Hallo, we haven’t met?

    Наташа : Нет, давайте познакомимся. Меня зовут Наташа , а как вас зовут?

    : Nyet, davaytje paznakomimsya. Menya zavut Natasha, a kak vas zavut?/

    : Not yet, let’s get acquainted. My name is Natasha , and what is your name?

    Виктор : Меня зовут Виктор

    : Menya zavut Viktor/

    : My name is Viktor

    Наташа : Виктор, очень приятно

    : Viktor, ocen’ priyatno/

    : Viktor, pleased to meet you

    Виктор : Очень приятно

    : Ocen’ priyatno/

    : Pleased to meet you

    Наташа : Откуда вы приехали?

    : Atkuda vy priyekhali?/

    : Where do you come from?

    Виктор : Я из России, а Bы?

    : Ya iz rossii, a Vy?

    : I’m from Russia, and you?

    Наташа : Я из Индонезии

    : Ya iz Indonezii

    : I’m from Indonesia

    Виктор : Как хорошо, что мы познпкомились

    : Kak kharasho, sto my paznakomilis’/

    : It’s so good that we’ve met


    А       : З дравствуйте, доброе утро  господин Смит.

    Zdrastuitye, dobroye utro, gaspajin Smit.

    /Halo, Selamat Pagi, Tuan Smit./

    Б        : Здравствуйте, доброе утро  госпожа Джон.

    Zdrastuitye, dobroye utro,gaspaza Djon.

    / Halo, selamat pagi, Nyonya Jon/

    А        : Как поживаете?

    Kak Pazivayete?

    /Bagaimana Kabar Anda?/

    Б       : Хорошо, а вы?

    Kharaso, a vei?

    / Baik, dan Anda?/

    А        : Отлично


    / Bagus./

    Б        : Куда ты идёшь?

    Kuda tei ijyosh?

    /Kemana Kamu pergi?/

    А        : Я иду завтракать, мой друг ждёт меня.

    Ya idu zavtrakat, moi drug zdyot menya.

    /Saya pergi makan pagi, teman saya sedang menunggu saya./

    Б        : Ладно, до встречи.

    Ok, do vstreci.

    /Ok. Sampai jumpa/

    А        : До встречи.

    Дo vstreci.

    /Selamat tinggal./

    Belajar Bahasa Rusia

    Alfabet Bahasa Rusia


    Bahasa Rusia ditulis menggunakan alfabet Sirilik (кириллица, kirillitsa), yaitu alfabet yang ditemukan oleh St. Cyril dan Methodius, keduanya adalah misionaris Kristen dari Yunani pada abad IX yang menerjemahkan kitab-kitab agama Kristen Ortodoks ke dalam bahasa Slavia Kuno. Saat ini, alfabet Sirilik yang dipakai di Rusia telah dimodifikasi sedemikian rupa dan terdiri atas sebelas huruf vokal, dua puluh konsonan, serta dua penanda keras dan lunak sehingga seluruhnya ada 33 huruf.

    Banyaknya bunyi huruf dalam bahasa Rusia menjadikan bahasa ini terdengar melodis. Di sinilah keunikan bahasa Rusia bila dibandingkan dengan bahasa-bahasa lainnya.

    Huruf Nama huruf Transliterasi Transliterasi
    nama huruf
    А а а a a
    Б б бэ b be
    В в вэ v ve
    Г г гэ g ge
    Д д дэ d de
    Е е йэ ye ye
    Ё ё йо yo yo
    Ж ж жэ zh zhe
    З з зэ z ze
    И и и i i
    Й й и краткое y i kratkoye
    К к ка k ka
    Л л эл l el
    М м эм m em
    Н н эн n en
    О о о o o
    П п пэ p pe
    Р р эр r er
    С с эс s es
    Т т тэ t te
    У у у u u
    Ф ф эф f ef
    Х х ха h ha
    Ц ц цэ ts tse
    Ч ч чe ch che
    Ш ш ша sh sha
    Щ щ ща sch scha
    Ъ ъ твёрдый знак * tvyordiy znak
    Ы ы ы y y
    Ь ь мя́гкий знак ´* myagkiy znak
    Э э э e e
    Ю ю йу yu yu
    Я я йа ya ya


    I. Huruf vokal
    diucapkan a biasa, seperti pada bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan seperti ye pada kata bahasa Indonesia ‘yel yel’, apabila tidak mendapatkan tekanan, maka akan diucapkan lemah (menjadi bunyi yeu atau i).
    diucapkan seperti yo pada kata bahasa Indonesia ‘yoyo’. Selalu mendapat tekanan
    diucapkan i biasa, serupa dengan i bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan y seperti pada kata amboy, mey, dsb. Didalam kata, huruf ini hanya ditemui dibelakang huruf vokal, karena huruf ini berfungsi sebagai diftong.
    diucapkan seperti о pada bahasa Indonesia umumnya, apabila tidak mendapatkan tekanan, akan diucapkan eu (seperti e pada kata ‘seperti’), contoh: нерушимой diucapkan nyeurushimeuy, прочной diucapkan prochneuy. Dibeberapakata diucapkan а. Contoh: Хорошо diucapkan heurasho.
    diucapkan u seperti pada bahasa Indonesia.
    ketika dieja, huruf ini diucapkan eu (seperti e pada kata ‘seperti’) namun di dalam kata, ia diucapkan i dengan lidah ditarik ke belakang. Didalam kata, huruf ini hanya dapat ditemui dibelakang huruf konsonan.
    diucapkan e seperti pada bahasa Indonesia, nenek, pesek. dsb. Hanya ditemui dalam kata kata serapan.
    diucapkan yu, seperti pada kata ‘ayu’.
    diucapkan ya, seperti pada kata ‘saya’
    II. Huruf Konsonan
    diucapkan sama seperti b dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan dengan gigi bagian atas menempel di ‘dasar’ bibir bagian bawah, sehingga terdengar 2 huruf sekaligus (v dan w).
    diucapkan sama seperti g dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti d dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan seperti s dalam kata bahasa Inggris ‘measure’, ‘pleasure’.
    diucapkan sama seperti z dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti k dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti l dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti m dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti n dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti p dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti r dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti s dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti t dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan sama seperti f dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan seperti kh dalam bahasa Indonesia ‘akhir’, atau dalam bahasa Arab, kita mengenal huruf ﺥ
    diucapkan seperti th dalam bahasa Inggris ‘thin’, dalam bahasa Arab, kita mengenal huruf ث
    diucapkan sama seperti c dalam bahasa Indonesia.
    diucapkan seperti sh dalam bahasa Inggris ‘shut up’
    diucapkan seperti sy, dalam kata ‘syarat’. atau dalam bahasa Arab, kita mengenal huruf ش
    II. Tanda lunak & Tanda keras
    tidak ada bunyinya, didalam huruf hanya berguna sebagai penebal bunyi huruf didepannya. Dalam bahasa Arab kita mengenal qalqalah.
    tidak ada bunyinya, didalam huruf hanya berguna sebagai pelembut bunyi konsonan didepannya.
    Di dalam bahasa Rusia huruf ё (yo) dianggap sebagai pergeseran bunyi dari е, oleh karena itu didalam majalah, artikel-artikel dan harian-harian umum di Rusia, huruf  ё (yo) dan huruf е (ye) keduanya ditulis dengan е (ye). Huruf ё (yo); -dengan titik dua- dewasa ini hanya digunakan pada kamus, buku-buku anak-anak, dan buku-buku pelajaran bahasa Rusia Oleh karena sangat penting bagi anda untuk menghafalkan kata-kata Rusia yang menggunakan huruf ё (yo) agar tidak terjadi kesalahan ucapan (huruf е yang seharusnya dibaca yo, dibaca ye).
    Kalau sepatah kata terdiri dari dua suku atau lebih, salah satu dari suku katanya diucapkan lebih tegas, yaitu: suku kata yang diberi aksen atau tekanan suara, sedangkan suku-suku yang lain tidak. Pada kata Фраза – kalimat misalnya, suku kata yang pertama diberi tekanan sedangkan pada kata работа – pekerjaan, tekanan terletak pada suku kata yang kedua. Waktu menghafal suatu kosa kata bahasa Rusia, ingat-ingatlah suku katanya yang mana yang diberi tekanan kalau kita salah memberi tekanan, artinya mungkin berubah. misalnya kalau pada kata дома tekanan terletak di suku pertama, kata дома artinya “dirumah’’, sedangkan kalau tekanan diletakkan pada suku kata kedua (дома), kata itu berarti “rumah-rumah”. Untuk memudahkan pelajaran, kosa kata Rusia yang mendapat tekanan suara akan beri aksen/garis bawah. Hal ini biasa dipakai dalam kamus-kamus bahasa Rusia dengan maksud yang sama. Dalam buku-buku bahasa Rusia yang lain, dalam majalah-majalah dan harian-harian letak aksen tidak ditandai.

    Mengenal penyebutan angka dgn menggunakan bahasa rusia

    Sebelumnya saya sudah  memosting ttg alfabet dan percakapan singkat bahasa rusia. Kali ini saya ingin memosting gmna penyebutan dgn menggunakan bahasa  rusia. Penting uga kita mengetahui seperti apa saja bilangan dari 1 sampai 10 bagi yg memenag ingin bljr at memperdalam bhasa rusia. Seprti juga bahasa indonesia, bahasa rusia pun memiliki perubahan2 penyebutan. Contoh singkatnya saya ambil dari bhs indonesia. Bila kita menyebut misal angka 1 maka kita menyebutnya angka satu, bila berubah menjadi tingkatan maka kita menyebutnya kesatu atau pertama. Bahasa rusia pun seperti itu. Tapi di sini saya tidak akan panjang lebar menjelaskannya soalnya saya pun kesulitan jika menjelaskannya secara tulisa, dan bagi yg baca pun akan jadi bingung.

    Klo gitu langsung aj ya kita bahas :)

    1 (adin)     6 (syes)            11 (adinadsat)           60 (syesjisat)

    2 (dva)      7 (sim)              20 (dwadsat)              70 (simjisat)

    3 (tri)        8 (vosim)           30 (tridsat)                 80 (vosimjisat)

    4 (citiri)      9 (dewit)          40 (sorak)                   90 (dewinosta)

    5 (pyat)     10 (desit)          50 (pijisat)                  100 (sto)

    Nah sekarang kita masuk ke perubahan2 urutan dari 11 sampe 99

    11- 19 akhirannya -nadsat

    11 (adinnadsat)       15 (pitnadsat)

    12 (dwinadsat)        19 (dewidnadsat)

    13 ( trinadsat)          …

    20- 29 awalannya dwadsat-

    24 (dwadsat citiri)          27 (dwadsat sim)

    25 (dwadsat pyat)          29 (dwadsat dewit)

    26 (dwadsat syes)

    30-39 awalannya tridsat-

    31 (tridsat adin)      35 (tridsat pyat)

    32 (tridsat dwa)      38 (tridsat vosim)

    33 (tridsat tri)

    40-49 awalannya sorak-

    44 (sorak citiri)        47 (sorak sim)

    45 (sorak pyat)         49 (sorak dewit)

    46 (sorak syes)

    50-59 awalannya pitjisat-

    51 (pitjisat ajin) 55 (pitjisat pyat)

    52 (pitjisat dwa)      58 (pitjisat vosim)

    53 (pitjisat tri)

    60-69 awalannya syesjisat-

    61 (syesjisat ajin)      66 (syesjisat syes)

    64 ( syesjisat citiri) 69 (syesjisat dewit)

    67 (syesjisat sim)

    70-79 awalannya simjisat-

    72 (simjisat dwa)        76 (simjisat syes)

    73 (simjisat tri)           78 (simjisat vosim)

    75 (simjisat pyat)

    80-89 awalannya vosimjisat-

    81 (vosimjisat adin)      88 (vosimjisat vosim)

    84 (vosimjisat citiri)      89 (vosimjisat dewit)

    87 (vosimjisat sim)

    90-99 awalannya jewinosta-

    * untuk angka 90 sampe 99 penyebutannya rada2 rumit dan mesti rada2 cepat dalam pengucapannya supaya tidak bingung (sebenernya gw sendiri sih yg bingung nyebutin angka 90 :D )

    91 (jewinosta adin)       96 (jewinosta syes)

    92 (jewinosta dwa)       99 (jewinosta jewit)

    94 (jewinosta citiri)

    100 (sto)                                                                          160 (sto syesjisat)

    120 (sto dwadsat)                                                            170 (sto simjisat)

    130 (sto tridsat)                                                                180 (sto vosimjisat)

    140 (sto sorak)                                                                 190 (sto jewinosta)

    150 (sto pitjisat)                                                               200 (dwesti)

    300 (trista)

    400 (citirista)

    500 (pitsot)

    600 (syessot)

    700 (simsot)

    800 (vosimsot)

    900 (jewitsot)

    1000 (tisic)

    Nah klo sebelumnya saya sudah memberi contoh bagaimana cara menyebutkan angka 1 s/d 1000, sekarang saya akan memberi contoh sedikit ttg penyebutan tingkat. Lagi2 saya tidak akan terlalu dalam menjelaskannya tapi ya setidak2nya bisa menjadi gambaran sedikit lah. Sebenarnya ini bukan bidang saya sih, maklum bukan anak sastra dan bahasa rusia tapi anak geologi. Oh ya sebelumnya mau dikasih tau, saya mostingin ini tidak sesuai dengan hurufnya tapi lebih gimana cara pengucapannya soalnya klo dilihat dari huruf dan cara pengucapannya sedikit berbeda.

    Ok next lanjut ke yg lain…..

    1-  perv-ie             -aya               -ovo

    2- vtar -ie             -aya               -ovo

    3- tret-ie               -aya               -ovo

    4- citviort-ie            -aya              -ovo

    5- pyat-ie               -aya              -ovo

    6- syet-ie                -aya               -ovo

    7-sidmoi                -aya                -0v0

    8- vas-moi             -aya                  -ovo

    9- jewyat-ie            -aya                -ovo

    10-  jesyat-ie          -aya                 -ovo

    source 1:

    source 2:

    Русские Главных Фраз / Ungkapan dasar bahasa Rusia

    Didasarkan pada kebutuhan pelajar bahasa Rusia yg tidak memadai, kami sebagai pengurus bagian Linguistik Rusia, akan mengadakan pelajaran bahasa Rusia. Kata-kata didalam garis miring adalah cara pengucapannya, persis sama seperti pada bahasa Indonesia. disini kami beri beberapa kosa kata Rusia yg diambil dalam berbagai sumber, pengetahuan dan pengalaman penulis dan buku-buku yg dapat dipercaya. Pertanyaan dan saran harap tulis di wall grup.
    huruf é dibaca seperti e pada kata /enam/, /tetap/, /sembunyi/. Sedangkan e dibaca seperti e pada kata /nenek/, /bebek/.
    kata didalam garis miring adalah cara pengucapan.

    Menyatakan Terimakasih

    • спасибо /spasiba/ – terima kasih
    • большое спасибо /balshoyé spasiba/ – terima kasih banyak
    • благодарю вас /blagadaru vas/ – saya berterima kasih padamu
    • пожалуйста /pazhalsta/ – sama-sama
    • не за что /ni za shto/ – sama-sama


    • Здравствуйте /zdrastuiche/ – halo (kapan pun, bentuk sopan)
    • Привет /privyet/ – halo (bentuk biasa)
    • Доброе утро /dabroi utra/ – selamat pagi (pukul 00.00-12.00)
    • Добрый день /dobriy jyen/ – selamat siang (pukul 12.00-18.00)
    • Добрый вечер /dobriy vyechir/ – selamat malam (pukul 18.00-00.00)
    • Как поживаете? /kak pazhivayecheh/ – apa kabar? (bentuk sopan)
    • Как поживаешь? /kak pazhivayesh/ – apa kabar? (bentuk biasa)
    • Прекрасно. А ты? /prikrasna, a ti/ – baik, kamu? (bentuk biasa)
    • Рад Вас видеть /rat vas vijyech/ – senang bertemu dengan Anda (bentuk sopan, pria)
    • Рада Вас видеть /rada vas vijyech/ – senang bertemu dengan Anda (bentuk sopan, wanita)
    • Рад тебя видеть /rat tibya vijyech/ – senang bertemu denganmu (bentuk biasa, pria)
    • Рада тебя видеть /rada tibya vijyech/ – senang bertemu denganmu (bentuk biasa, wanita)
    • Я тоже рад Вас видеть /ya tozhe rat vas vijyech/ – senang bertemu dengan Anda juga (bentuk sopan, pria)
    • Я тоже рада Вас видеть /ya tozhe rada vas vijyech/ – senang bertemu dengan Anda juga (bentuk sopan, wanita)
    • Что нового? /shto novawa/ – ada sesuatu yang baru?
    • Как дела? /kak jyela/ – apa kabar? (bentuk biasa)
    • Как у Вас дела? /kak u was jyela/ – apa kabar? (bentuk sopan)
    • Спасибо, хорошо /spasiba, harasho/ – baik, terima kasih
    • А у Вас? /a u was/ – lalu, bagaimana kabar Anda? (bentuk sopan)
    • Так себе /tak sibye/ – begitulah
    • Как обычно /kak abweichna/ – seperti biasa
    • Неплохо /nyeuploha/ – tak terlalu buruk
    • Плохо /ploha/ – buruk


    • Как вас зовут? /kak was zavut/ – siapa nama Anda? (bentuk sopan)
    • Как тебя зовут? /kak tibya zavut/ – siapa namamu? (bentuk biasa)
    • Меня зовут… /minya zavut/ – nama saya…
    • Вы знакомы с…? /vwi znakomweu s…/ – apa Anda kenal… ? (bentuk sopan)
    • Разрешите познакомить вас (с моим мужем/с моей женой) /razreshiche paznakomich (was smayim muzheum/smayey zheneuy)/ – izinkan saya memperkenalkan Anda kepada (suami/istri) saya.
    • Очень приятно /ochyen priyatna/ – senang bertemu dengan Anda
    • Я из Индонезии /ya iz Indanyezii/ – saya dari Indonesia


    • Боюсь, что мне пора /boyus, shto mnye para/ – tampaknya, saya harus beranjak sekarang
    • До свидания! /da svidaniya/ – selamat tinggal! (bentuk sopan)
    • Пока! /paka/ – dadah!
    • До скорого! – /da skorawa/ – sampai jumpa! (bentuk biasa)
    • Спокойной ночи – /spakoyneuy nochi/ – selamat tidur!
    • Увидимся /uvijimsia/ – sampai bertemu
    • До скорой встречи /da skoreuy wstrechi/ – sampai bertemu lagi
    • До вечера /da vyechira/ – sampai nanti malam
    • До завтра /da zavtra/ – sampai besok
    • Всего наилучшего! /vsiwo nailuchsiwo/ – semua yang terbaik!
    • Передавай привет… /piridavay privyet…/ – sampaikan salam saya kepada…

    History of Math(From Prehistoric to Modern)

    Prehistoric mathematics

    The Ishango bone, dating to perhaps 18,000 to 20,000 B.C.

    The origins of mathematical thought lie in the concepts of number,magnitude, and form. Modern studies of animal cognition have shown that these concepts are not unique to humans. Such concepts would have been part of everyday life in hunter-gatherer societies. The idea of the “number” concept evolving gradually over time is supported by the existence of languages which preserve the distinction between “one”, “two”, and “many”, but not of numbers larger than two.

    The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon’s fibula. Also prehistoric artifactsdiscovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.

    The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known demonstration of sequences of prime numbers or a six month lunar calendar. In the book How Mathematics Happened: The First 50,000 Years, Peter Rudman argues that the development of the concept of prime numbers could only have come about after the concept of division, which he dates to after 10,000 BC, with prime numbers probably not being understood until about 500 BC. He also writes that “no attempt has been made to explain why a tally of something should exhibit multiples of two, prime numbers between 10 and 20, and some numbers that are almost multiples of 10.”

    Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. It has been claimed that megalithic monuments inEngland and Scotland, dating from the 3rd millennium BC, incorporate geometric ideas such as circlesellipses, and Pythagorean triples in their design.

    Mesopotamian mathematics

    The Babylonian mathematical tablet Plimpton 322, dated to 1800 BC.

    Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the people of Mesopotamia (modernIraq) from the days of the early Sumerians through the Hellenistic period almost to the dawn of Christianity. It is named Babylonian mathematics due to the central role of Babylon as a place of study. Later under the Arab Empire, Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, once again became an important center of study for Islamic mathematics.

    In contrast to the sparsity of sources in Egyptian mathematics, our knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from more than 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s.Written in Cuneiform script, tablets were inscribed whilst the clay was moist, and baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun. Some of these appear to be graded homework.

    The earliest evidence of written mathematics dates back to the ancient Sumerians, who built the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia. They developed a complex system of metrology from 3000 BC. From around 2500 BC onwards, the Sumerians wrote multiplication tables on clay tablets and dealt with geometrical exercises and division problems. The earliest traces of the Babylonian numerals also date back to this period.

    The majority of recovered clay tablets date from 1800 to 1600 BC, and cover topics which include fractions, algebra, quadratic and cubic equations, and the calculation of regular reciprocal pairs. The tablets also include multiplication tables and methods for solving linear andquadratic equations. The Babylonian tablet YBC 7289 gives an approximation to √2 accurate to five decimal places.

    Babylonian mathematics were written using a sexagesimal (base-60) numeral system. From this derives the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 360 (60 x 6) degrees in a circle, as well as the use of seconds and minutes of arc to denote fractions of a degree. Babylonian advances in mathematics were facilitated by the fact that 60 has many divisors. Also, unlike the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, the Babylonians had a true place-value system, where digits written in the left column represented larger values, much as in the decimal system. They lacked, however, an equivalent of the decimal point, and so the place value of a symbol often had to be inferred from the context.

    Egyptian mathematics

    Image of Problem 14 from the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. The problem includes a diagram indicating the dimensions of the truncated pyramid.

    Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in the Egyptian language. From the Hellenistic periodGreek replaced Egyptian as the written language of Egyptianscholars. Mathematical study in Egypt later continued under the Arab Empire as part of Islamic mathematics, when Arabic became the written language of Egyptian scholars.

    The most extensive Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind papyrus (sometimes also called the Ahmes Papyrus after its author), dated to c. 1650 BC but likely a copy of an older document from the Middle Kingdom of about 2000-1800 BC. It is an instruction manual for students in arithmetic and geometry. In addition to giving area formulas and methods for multiplication, division and working with unit fractions, it also contains evidence of other mathematical knowledge, including compositeand prime numbersarithmeticgeometric and harmonic means; and simplistic understandings of both the Sieve of Eratosthenes and perfect number theory (namely, that of the number 6). It also shows how to solve first order linear equations as well as arithmetic and geometric series.

    Another significant Egyptian mathematical text is the Moscow papyrus, also from the Middle Kingdom period, dated to c. 1890 BC. It consists of what are today called word problems or story problems, which were apparently intended as entertainment. One problem is considered to be of particular importance because it gives a method for finding the volume of a frustum: “If you are told: A truncated pyramid of 6 for the vertical height by 4 on the base by 2 on the top. You are to square this 4, result 16. You are to double 4, result 8. You are to square 2, result 4. You are to add the 16, the 8, and the 4, result 28. You are to take one third of 6, result 2. You are to take 28 twice, result 56. See, it is 56. You will find it right.”

    Finally, the Berlin papyrus (c. 1300 BC) shows that ancient Egyptians could solve a second-order algebraic equation.

    Greek Mathematics

    The Pythagorean theorem. ThePythagoreans are generally credited with the first proof of the theorem.

    Greek mathematics refers to the mathematics written in the Greek language from the time of Thales of Miletus (~600 BC) to the closure of the Academy of Athens in 529 AD. Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean, from Italy to North Africa, but were united by culture and language. Greek mathematics of the period following Alexander the Great is sometimes called Hellenistic mathematics.

    Greek mathematics was much more sophisticated than the mathematics that had been developed by earlier cultures. All surviving records of pre-Greek mathematics show the use of inductive reasoning, that is, repeated observations used to establish rules of thumb. Greek mathematicians, by contrast, used deductive reasoning. The Greeks used logic to derive conclusions from definitions and axioms, and used mathematical rigor to prove them.

    Greek mathematics is thought to have begun with Thales of Miletus (c. 624–c.546 BC) andPythagoras of Samos (c. 582–c. 507 BC). Although the extent of the influence is disputed, they were probably inspired by Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics. According to legend, Pythagoras traveled to Egypt to learn mathematics, geometry, and astronomy from Egyptian priests.

    Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to approximate the value of pi.

    Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales’ Theorem. As a result, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. Pythagoras established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was “All is number”. It was the Pythagoreans who coined the term “mathematics”, and with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins. The Pythagoreans are credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the theorem has a long history, and with the proof of the existence of irrational numbers.

    One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid’s Elements, found at Oxyrhynchusand dated to circa AD 100. The diagram accompanies Book II, Proposition 5.

    Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) is important in the history of mathematics for inspiring and guiding others.His Platonic Academy, in Athens, became the mathematical center of the world in the 4th century BC, and it was from this school that the leading mathematicians of the day, such as Eudoxus of Cnidus, came from. Plato also discussed the foundations of mathematics, clarified some of the definitions (e.g. that of a line as “breadthless length”), and reorganized the assumptions.The analytic method is ascribed to Plato, while a formula for obtaining Pythagorean triples bears his name.

    Eudoxus (408–c.355 BC) developed the method of exhaustion, a precursor of modernintegration and a theory of ratios that avoided the problem of incommensurable magnitudes.The former allowed the calculations of areas and volumes of curvilinear figures, while the latter enabled subsequent geometers to make significant advances in geometry. Though he made no specific technical mathematical discoveries, Aristotle (384—c.322 BC) contributed significantly to the development of mathematics by laying the foundations of logic.

    In the 3rd century BC, the premier center of mathematical education and research was the Musaeum of Alexandria. It was there thatEuclid (c. 300 BC) taught, and wrote the Elements, widely considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time.[1] TheElements introduced mathematical rigor through the axiomatic method and is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today, that of definition, axiom, theorem, and proof. Although most of the contents of the Elements were already known, Euclid arranged them into a single, coherent logical framework. The Elements was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th century and its contents are still taught in geometry classes today. In addition to the familiar theorems of Euclidean geometry, theElements was meant as an introductory textbook to all mathematical subjects of the time, such as number theoryalgebra and solid geometry, including proofs that the square root of two is irrational and that there are infinitely many prime numbers. Euclid also wrote extensively on other subjects, such as conic sectionsopticsspherical geometry, and mechanics, but only half of his writings survive.

    Archimedes (c.287–212 BC) of Syracuse used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave remarkably accurate approximations of Pi. He also studied the spiral bearing his name, formulas for thevolumes of surfaces of revolution, and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers.

    Chinese mathematics

    Counting rod numerals

    The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, one of the earliest surviving mathematical texts from China(2nd century AD).

    Early Chinese mathematics is so different from that of other parts of the world that it is reasonable to assume independent development.The oldest extant mathematical text from China is the Chou Pei Suan Ching, variously dated to between 1200 BC and 100 BC, though a date of about 300 BC appears reasonable.

    Of particular note is the use in Chinese mathematics of a decimal positional notation system, the so-called “rod numerals” in which distinct ciphers were used for numbers between 1 and 10, and additional ciphers for powers of tenThus, the number 123 would be written using the symbol for “1”, followed by the symbol for “100”, then the symbol for “2” followed by the symbol for “10”, followed by the symbol for “3”. This was the most advanced number system in the world at the time, apparently in use several centuries before the common era and well before the development of the Indian numeral system. Rod numerals allowed the representation of numbers as large as desired and allowed calculations to be carried out on thesuan pan, or (Chinese abacus). The date of the invention of the suan pan is not certain, but the earliest written mention dates from AD 190, in Xu Yue’s Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures.

    The oldest existent work on geometry in China comes from the philosophical Mohist canon c. 330 BC, compiled by the followers of Mozi (470–390 BC). The Mo Jing described various aspects of many fields associated with physical science, and provided a small number of geometrical theorems as well.

    In 212 BC, the Emperor Qin Shi Huang (Shi Huang-ti) commanded all books in the Qin Empire other than officially sanctioned ones be burned. This decree was not universally obeyed, but as a consequence of this order little is known about ancient Chinese mathematics before this date. After the book burning of 212 BC, the Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) produced works of mathematics which presumably expanded on works that are now lost. The most important of these is The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, the full title of which appeared by AD 179, but existed in part under other titles beforehand. It consists of 246 word problems involving agriculture, business, employment of geometry to figure height spans and dimension ratios for Chinese pagoda towers, engineering,surveying, and includes material on right triangles and values of π.It also made use of Cavalieri’s principle on volume more than a thousand years before Cavalieri would propose it in the West. It created mathematical proof for the Pythagorean theorem, and a mathematical formula for Gaussian eliminationLiu Hui commented on the work by the 3rd century AD, and gave a value of π accurate to 5 decimal places. Though more of a matter of computational stamina than theoretical insight, in the 5th century AD Zu Chongzhicomputed the value of π to seven decimal places, which remained the most accurate value of π for almost the next 1000 years.

    The high water mark of Chinese mathematics occurs in the 13th century, with the development of Chinese algebra. The most important text from that period is the Precious Mirror of the Four Elements by Chu Shih-chieh (fl. 1280-1303), dealing with the solution of simultaneous higher order algebraic equations using a method similar to Horner’s method. The Precious Mirror also contains a diagram of Pascal’s triangle with coefficients of binomial expansions through the eighth power, though both appear in Chinese works as early as 1100. The Chinese also made use of the complex combinatorial diagram known as the magic square and magic circles, described in ancient times and perfected by Yang Hui (AD 1238–1298).

    Even after European mathematics began to flourish during the Renaissance, European and Chinese mathematics were separate traditions, with significant Chinese mathematical output in decline from the 13th century onwards. Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci carried mathematical ideas back and forth between the two cultures from the 16th to 18th centuries, though at this point far more mathematical ideas were entering China than leaving.

    Indian mathematics

    The numerals used in the Bakhshali manuscript, dated between the 2nd century BCE and the 2nd century CE.

    Brahmi numerals (lower row) in India in the 1st century CE

    The earliest civilization on the Indian subcontinent is the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BC in the Indus riverbasin. Their cities were laid out with geometric regularity, but no known mathematical documents survive from this civilization.

    The oldest extant mathematical records from India are the Shatapatha Brahmana (c. 9th century BC but estimates of the date vary widely). TheSulba Sutras (c. 800 BC–200 AD), appendices to religious texts which give simple rules for constructing altars of various shapes, such as squares, rectangles, parallelograms, and others. The Sulba Sutras give methods for constructing a circle with approximately the same area as a given square, which imply several different approximations of the value of π, In addition, they compute the square root of 2 to several decimal places, list Pythagorean triples, and give a statement of the Pythagorean theorem.Mesopotamian influence at this stage is considered likely.

    Pāṇini (c. 5th century BC) formulated the rules for Sanskrit grammar. His notation was similar to modern mathematical notation, and used metarules, transformations, and recursionPingala (roughly 3rd-1st centuries BC) in his treatise of prosody uses a device corresponding to a binary numeral system. His discussion of the combinatorics of meters corresponds to an elementary version of the binomial theorem.[Pingala’s work also contains the basic ideas of Fibonacci numbers (called mātrāmeru).

    The Surya Siddhanta (c. 400) introduced the trigonometric functions of sinecosine, and inverse sine, and laid down rules to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conforms to their actual positions in the sky. This work was translated into to Arabic and Latin during the Middle Ages.

    In the 5th century AD, Aryabhata wrote the Aryabhatiya, a slim volume, written in verse, intended to supplement the rules of calculation used in astronomy and mathematical mensuration, though with no feeling for logic or deductive methodology. Though about half of the entries are wrong, it is in the Aryabhatiya that the decimal place-value system first appears. Several centuries later, the Muslim mathematician Abu Rayhan Biruni described the Aryabhatiya as a “mix of common pebbles and costly crystals”.

    In the 7th century, Brahmagupta identified the Brahmagupta theoremBrahmagupta’s identity and Brahmagupta’s formula, and for the first time, in Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta, he lucidly explained the use of zero as both a placeholder and decimal digit, and explained the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. It was from a translation of this Indian text on mathematics (c. 770) that Islamic mathematicians were introduced to this numeral system, which they adapted as Arabic numerals. Islamic scholars carried knowledge of this number system to Europe by the 12th century, and it has now displaced all older number systems throughout the world. In the 10th century, Halayudha‘s commentary onPingala‘s work contains a study of the Fibonacci sequence and Pascal’s triangle, and describes the formation of a matrix.

    In the 12th century, Bhāskara II lived in southern India and wrote extensively on all then known branches of mathematic. His work contains mathematical objects equivalent or approximately equivalent to infinitesimals, derivatives, the mean value theorem and the derivative of the sine function. To what extent he anticipated the invention of calculus is a controversial subject among historians of mathematics

    In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, the founder of the so-called Kerala School of Mathematics, found the Madhava–Leibniz series, and, using 21 terms, computed the value of π as 3.14159265359. Madhava also found the Madhava-Gregory series to determine the arctangent, the Madhava-Newton power series to determine sine and cosine and the Taylor approximation for sine and cosine functions .In the 16th century, Jyesthadeva consolidated many of the Kerala School’s developments and theorems in the Yukti-bhāṣā. However, the Kerala School did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala. Progress in mathematics along with other fields of science stagnated in India with the establishment of Muslim rule in India.

    Islamic mathematics

    The Islamic Empire established across Persia, the Middle EastCentral AsiaNorth AfricaIberia, and in parts of India in the 8th century made significant contributions towards mathematics. Although most Islamic texts on mathematics were written in Arabic, most of them were not written by Arabs, since much like the status of Greek in the Hellenistic world, Arabic was used as the written language of non-Arab scholars throughout the Islamic world at the time. Persianscontributed to the world of Mathematics alongside Arabs.

    In the 9th century, the Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī wrote several important books on the Hindu-Arabic numerals and on methods for solving equations. His book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, written about 825, along with the work of Al-Kindi, were instrumental in spreading Indian mathematics and Indian numerals to the West. The wordalgorithm is derived from the Latinization of his name, Algoritmi, and the word algebra from the title of one of his works, Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī hīsāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing). He gave an exhaustive explanation for the algebraic solution of quadratic equations with positive roots,and he was the first to teach algebra in anelementary form and for its own sake. He also discussed the fundamental method of “reduction” and “balancing”, referring to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. This is the operation which al-Khwārizmī originally described as al-jabr.His algebra was also no longer concerned “with a series of problems to be resolved, but an exposition which starts with primitive terms in which the combinations must give all possible prototypes for equations, which henceforward explicitly constitute the true object of study.” He also studied an equation for its own sake and “in a generic manner, insofar as it does not simply emerge in the course of solving a problem, but is specifically called on to define an infinite class of problems.”

    Further developments in algebra were made by Al-Karaji in his treatise al-Fakhri, where he extends the methodology to incorporate integer powers and integer roots of unknown quantities. Something close to a proof by mathematical induction appears in a book written by Al-Karaji around 1000 AD, who used it to prove the binomial theoremPascal’s triangle, and the sum of integral cubes. The historian of mathematics, F. Woepcke,[86] praised Al-Karaji for being “the first who introduced the theory of algebraic calculus.” Also in the 10th century,Abul Wafa translated the works of Diophantus into Arabic. Ibn al-Haytham was the first mathematician to derive the formula for the sum of the fourth powers, using a method that is readily generalizable for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers. He performed an integration in order to find the volume of a paraboloid, and was able to generalize his result for the integrals of polynomials up to the fourth degree. He thus came close to finding a general formula for the integrals of polynomials, but he was not concerned with any polynomials higher than the fourth degree.

    In the late 11th century, Omar Khayyam wrote Discussions of the Difficulties in Euclid, a book about what he perceived as flaws in Euclid’sElements, especially the parallel postulate. He was also the first to find the general geometric solution to cubic equations. He was also very influential in calendar reform.

    In the 13th century, Nasir al-Din Tusi (Nasireddin) made advances in spherical trigonometry. He also wrote influential work on Euclid‘s parallel postulate. In the 15th century, Ghiyath al-Kashi computed the value of π to the 16th decimal place. Kashi also had an algorithm for calculating nth roots, which was a special case of the methods given many centuries later by Ruffini and Horner.

    Other achievements of Muslim mathematicians during this period include the addition of the decimal point notation to the Arabic numerals, the discovery of all the modern trigonometric functions besides the sine, al-Kindi‘s introduction of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis, the development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham, the beginning of algebraic geometry by Omar Khayyam and the development of analgebraic notation by al-Qalasādī.

    During the time of the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empire from the 15th century, the development of Islamic mathematics became stagnant.

    Medieval European mathematics

    Medieval European interest in mathematics was driven by concerns quite different from those of modern mathematicians. One driving element was the belief that mathematics provided the key to understanding the created order of nature, frequently justified by Plato‘s Timaeus and the biblical passage (in the Book of Wisdom) that God had ordered all things in measure, and number, and weight.

    Boethius provided a place for mathematics in the curriculum in the 6th century when he coined the term quadrivium to describe the study of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. He wrote De institutione arithmetica, a free translation from the Greek of Nicomachus‘sIntroduction to ArithmeticDe institutione musica, also derived from Greek sources; and a series of excerpts from Euclid‘s Elements. His works were theoretical, rather than practical, and were the basis of mathematical study until the recovery of Greek and Arabic mathematical works.

    In the 12th century, European scholars traveled to Spain and Sicily seeking scientific Arabic texts, including al-Khwārizmī‘s The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, translated into Latin by Robert of Chester, and the complete text of Euclid’sElements, translated in various versions by Adelard of BathHerman of Carinthia, and Gerard of Cremona.

    These new sources sparked a renewal of mathematics. Fibonacci, writing in the Liber Abaci, in 1202 and updated in 1254, produced the first significant mathematics in Europe since the time of Eratosthenes, a gap of more than a thousand years. The work introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe, and discussed many other mathematical problems.

    The 14th century saw the development of new mathematical concepts to investigate a wide range of problems. One important contribution was development of mathematics of local motion.

    Thomas Bradwardine proposed that speed (V) increases in arithmetic proportion as the ratio of force (F) to resistance (R) increases in geometric proportion. Bradwardine expressed this by a series of specific examples, but although the logarithm had not yet been conceived, we can express his conclusion anachronistically by writing: V = log (F/R). Bradwardine’s analysis is an example of transferring a mathematical technique used by al-Kindi and Arnald of Villanova to quantify the nature of compound medicines to a different physical problem.

    One of the 14th-century Oxford CalculatorsWilliam Heytesbury, lacking differential calculus and the concept of limits, proposed to measure instantaneous speed “by the path that would be described by [a body] if… it were moved uniformly at the same degree of speed with which it is moved in that given instant”

    Heytesbury and others mathematically determined the distance covered by a body undergoing uniformly accelerated motion (today solved byintegration), stating that “a moving body uniformly acquiring or losing that increment [of speed] will traverse in some given time a [distance] completely equal to that which it would traverse if it were moving continuously through the same time with the mean degree [of speed]”.

    Nicole Oresme at the University of Paris and the Italian Giovanni di Casali independently provided graphical demonstrations of this relationship, asserting that the area under the line depicting the constant acceleration, represented the total distance traveled. In a later mathematical commentary on Euclid’s Elements, Oresme made a more detailed general analysis in which he demonstrated that a body will acquire in each successive increment of time an increment of any quality that increases as the odd numbers. Since Euclid had demonstrated the sum of the odd numbers are the square numbers, the total quality acquired by the body increases as the square of the time.

    Renaissance mathematics

    Portrait of Luca Pacioli, a painting traditionally attributed to Jacopo de’ Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).

    During the Renaissance, the development of mathematics and of accounting were intertwined. While there is no direct relationship between algebra and accounting, the teaching of the subjects and the books published often intended for the children of merchants who were sent to reckoning schools (in Flanders and Germany) or abacus schools (known asabbaco in Italy), where they learned the skills useful for trade and commerce. There is probably no need for algebra in performing bookkeeping operations, but for complex bartering operations or the calculation of compound interest, a basic knowledge of arithmetic was mandatory and knowledge of algebra was very useful.

    Luca Pacioli‘s “Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalità” (Italian: “Review of ArithmeticGeometryRatio and Proportion“) was first printed and published inVenice in 1494. It included a 27-page treatise on bookkeeping“Particularis de Computis et Scripturis” (Italian: “Details of Calculation and Recording”). It was written primarily for, and sold mainly to, merchants who used the book as a reference text, as a source of pleasure from the mathematical puzzles it contained, and to aid the education of their sons. InSumma Arithmetica, Pacioli introduced symbols for plus and minus for the first time in a printed book, symbols that became standard notation in Italian Renaissance mathematics.Summa Arithmetica was also the first known book printed in Italy to contain algebra. It is important to note that Pacioli himself had borrowed much of the work of Piero Della Francesca whom he plagiarized.

    In Italy, during the first half of the 16th century, Scipione del Ferro and Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia discovered solutions for cubic equations.Gerolamo Cardano published them in his 1545 book Ars Magna, together with a solution for the quartic equations, discovered by his studentLodovico Ferrari. In 1572 Rafael Bombelli published his L’Algebra in which he showed how to deal with the imaginary quantities that could appear in Cardano’s formula for solving cubic equations.

    Simon Stevin‘s book De Thiende (‘the art of tenths’), first published in Dutch in 1585, contained the first systematic treatment of decimal notation, which influenced all later work on the real number system.

    Driven by the demands of navigation and the growing need for accurate maps of large areas, trigonometry grew to be a major branch of mathematics. Bartholomaeus Pitiscus was the first to use the word, publishing his Trigonometria in 1595. Regiomontanus’s table of sines and cosines was published in 1533.

    Mathematics during the Scientific Revolution

    17th century

    The 17th century saw an unprecedented explosion of mathematical and scientific ideas across Europe. Galileo observed the moons of Jupiter in orbit about that planet, using a telescope based on a toy imported from Holland. Tycho Brahe had gathered an enormous quantity of mathematical data describing the positions of the planets in the sky. Through his position as Brahe’s assistant, Johannes Kepler was first exposed to and seriously interacted with the topic of planetary motion. Kepler’s calculations were made simpler by the contemporaneous invention of natural logarithms by John Napier and Jost Bürgi. Kepler succeeded in formulating mathematical laws of planetary motion. Theanalytic geometry developed by René Descartes (1596–1650) allowed those orbits to be plotted on a graph, in Cartesian coordinatesSimon Stevin (1585) created the basis for modern decimal notation capable of describing all numbers, whether rational or irrational.

    Building on earlier work by many predecessors, Isaac Newton discovered the laws of physics explaining Kepler’s Laws, and brought together the concepts now known as infinitesimal calculus. Independently, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz developed calculus and much of the calculus notation still in use today. Science and mathematics had become an international endeavor, which would soon spread over the entire world.

    In addition to the application of mathematics to the studies of the heavens, applied mathematics began to expand into new areas, with the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal. Pascal and Fermat set the groundwork for the investigations of probability theory and the corresponding rules of combinatorics in their discussions over a game of gambling. Pascal, with his wager, attempted to use the newly developing probability theory to argue for a life devoted to religion, on the grounds that even if the probability of success was small, the rewards were infinite. In some sense, this foreshadowed the development of utility theory in the 18th–19th century.

    18th century

    The most influential mathematician of the 18th century was arguably Leonhard Euler. His contributions range from founding the study of graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem to standardizing many modern mathematical terms and notations. For example, he named the square root of minus 1 with the symbol i, and he popularized the use of the Greek letter π to stand for the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. He made numerous contributions to the study of topology, graph theory, calculus, combinatorics, and complex analysis, as evidenced by the multitude of theorems and notations named for him.

    Other important European mathematicians of the 18th century included Joseph Louis Lagrange, who did pioneering work in number theory, algebra, differential calculus, and the calculus of variations, and Laplacewho, in the age of Napoleon did important work on the foundations of celestial mechanics and on statistics.

    Modern mathematics

    19th century

    Throughout the 19th century mathematics became increasingly abstract. In the 19th century lived Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855). Leaving aside his many contributions to science, in pure mathematics he did revolutionary work on functions ofcomplex variables, in geometry, and on the convergence of series. He gave the first satisfactory proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebraand of the quadratic reciprocity law.

    Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry

    This century saw the development of the two forms of non-Euclidean geometry, where the parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry no longer holds. The Russian mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky and his rival, the Hungarian mathematicianJános Bolyai, independently defined and studied hyperbolic geometry, where uniqueness of parallels no longer holds. In this geometry the sum of angles in a triangle add up to less than 180°.Elliptic geometry was developed later in the 19th century by the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann; here no parallel can be found and the angles in a triangle add up to more than 180°. Riemann also developed Riemannian geometry, which unifies and vastly generalizes the three types of geometry, and he defined the concept of a manifold, which generalize the ideas of curves and surfaces.

    The 19th century saw the beginning of a great deal of abstract algebraHermann Grassmann in Germany gave a first version of vector spacesWilliam Rowan Hamilton in Ireland developed noncommutative algebra. The British mathematician George Boole devised an algebra that soon evolved into what is now called Boolean algebra, in which the only numbers were 0 and 1. Boolean algebra is the starting point ofmathematical logic and has important applications in computer science.

    Augustin-Louis CauchyBernhard Riemann, and Karl Weierstrass reformulated the calculus in a more rigorous fashion.

    Also, for the first time, the limits of mathematics were explored. Niels Henrik Abel, a Norwegian, and Évariste Galois, a Frenchman, proved that there is no general algebraic method for solving polynomial equations of degree greater than four (Abel–Ruffini theorem). Other 19th century mathematicians utilized this in their proofs that straightedge and compass alone are not sufficient to trisect an arbitrary angle, to construct the side of a cube twice the volume of a given cube, nor to construct a square equal in area to a given circle. Mathematicians had vainly attempted to solve all of these problems since the time of the ancient Greeks. On the other hand, the limitation of three dimensions in geometry was surpassed in the 19th century through considerations of parameter space and hypercomplex numbers.

    Abel and Galois’s investigations into the solutions of various polynomial equations laid the groundwork for further developments of group theory, and the associated fields of abstract algebra. In the 20th century physicists and other scientists have seen group theory as the ideal way to study symmetry.

    In the later 19th century, Georg Cantor established the first foundations of set theory, which enabled the rigorous treatment of the notion of infinity and has become the common language of nearly all mathematics. Cantor’s set theory, and the rise of mathematical logic in the hands of PeanoL. E. J. BrouwerDavid HilbertBertrand Russell, and A.N. Whitehead, initiated a long running debate on the foundations of mathematics.

    The 19th century saw the founding of a number of national mathematical societies: the London Mathematical Society in 1865, the Société Mathématique de France in 1872, the Circolo Mathematico di Palermo in 1884, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in 1883, and theAmerican Mathematical Society in 1888. The first international, special-interest society, the Quaternion Society, was formed in 1899, in the context of a vector controversy.

    [edit]20th century

    A map illustrating the Four Color Theorem

    The 20th century saw mathematics become a major profession. Every year, thousands of new Ph.D.s in mathematics are awarded, and jobs are available in both teaching and industry.

    In a 1900 speech to the International Congress of MathematiciansDavid Hilbert set out a list of 23 unsolved problems in mathematics. These problems, spanning many areas of mathematics, formed a central focus for much of 20th century mathematics. Today, 10 have been solved, 7 are partially solved, and 2 are still open. The remaining 4 are too loosely formulated to be stated as solved or not.

    Notable historical conjectures were finally proved. In 1976, Wolfgang Haken and Kenneth Appelused a computer to prove the four color theoremAndrew Wiles, building on the work of others, proved Fermat’s Last Theorem in 1995. Paul Cohen and Kurt Gödel proved that the continuum hypothesis is independent of (could neither be proved nor disproved from) the standard axioms of set theory. In 1998 Thomas Callister Hales proved the Kepler conjecture.

    Mathematical collaborations of unprecedented size and scope took place. An example is theclassification of finite simple groups (also called the “enormous theorem”), whose proof between 1955 and 1983 required 500-odd journal articles by about 100 authors, and filling tens of thousands of pages. A group of French mathematicians, including Jean Dieudonné and André Weil, publishing under the pseudonym “Nicolas Bourbaki“, attempted to exposit all of known mathematics as a coherent rigorous whole. The resulting several dozen volumes has had a controversial influence on mathematical education.

    Newtonian (red) vs. Einsteinian orbit (blue) of a lone planet orbiting a star, withrelativistic precession of apsides

    Differential geometry came into its own when Einstein used it in general relativity. Entire new areas of mathematics such as mathematical logictopology, and John von Neumann‘s game theorychanged the kinds of questions that could be answered by mathematical methods. All kinds ofstructures were abstracted using axioms and given names like metric spacestopological spacesetc. As mathematicians do, the concept of an abstract structure was itself abstracted and led tocategory theoryGrothendieck and Serre recast algebraic geometry using sheaf theory. Large advances were made in the qualitative study of dynamical systems that Poincaré had begun in the 1890s. Measure theory was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Applications of measures include the Lebesgue integralKolmogorov‘s axiomatisation of probability theory, andergodic theoryKnot theory greatly expanded. Quantum mechanics led to the development offunctional analysis. Other new areas include, Laurent Schwarz‘s distribution theoryfixed point theorysingularity theory and René Thom‘s catastrophe theorymodel theory, and Mandelbrot‘sfractalsLie theory with its Lie groups and Lie algebras became one of the major areas of study.

    The development and continual improvement of computers, at first mechanical analog machines and then digital electronic machines, allowed industry to deal with larger and larger amounts of data to facilitate mass production and distribution and communication, and new areas of mathematics were developed to deal with this: Alan Turing‘s computability theorycomplexity theoryClaude Shannon‘s information theorysignal processingdata analysisoptimization and other areas of operations research. In the preceding centuries much mathematical focus was on calculus and continuous functions, but the rise of computing and communication networks led to an increasing importance of discrete concepts and the expansion of combinatoricsincluding graph theory. The speed and data processing abilities of computers also enabled the handling of mathematical problems that were too time-consuming to deal with by pencil and paper calculations, leading to areas such as numerical analysis and symbolic computation. Some of the most important methods and algorithms of the 20th century are: the simplex algorithm, the Fast Fourier Transformerror-correcting codes, the Kalman filter from control theory and the RSA algorithm of public-key cryptography.

    At the same time, deep insights were made about the limitations to mathematics. In 1929 and 1930, it was proved the truth or falsity of all statements formulated about the natural numbers plus one of addition and multiplication, was decidable, i.e. could be determined by some algorithm. In 1931, Kurt Gödel found that this was not the case for the natural numbers plus both addition and multiplication; this system, known as Peano arithmetic, was in fact incompletable. (Peano arithmetic is adequate for a good deal of number theory, including the notion of prime number.) A consequence of Gödel’s two incompleteness theorems is that in any mathematical system that includes Peano arithmetic (including all of analysis and geometry), truth necessarily outruns proof, i.e. there are true statements that cannot be proved within the system. Hence mathematics cannot be reduced to mathematical logic, and David Hilbert‘s dream of making all of mathematics complete and consistent needed to be reformulated.

    The absolute value of the Gamma function on the complex plane.

    One of the more colorful figures in 20th century mathematics was Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan(1887–1920), an Indian autodidact who conjectured or proved over 3000 theorems, including properties of highly composite numbers, the partition function and its asymptotics, and mock theta functions. He also made major investigations in the areas of gamma functionsmodular forms,divergent serieshypergeometric series and prime number theory.

    Paul Erdős published more papers than any other mathematician in history, working with hundreds of collaborators. Mathematicians have a game equivalent to the Kevin Bacon Game, which leads to the Erdős number of a mathematician. This describes the “collaborative distance” between a person and Paul Erdős, as measured by joint authorship of mathematical papers.

    As in most areas of study, the explosion of knowledge in the scientific age has led to specialization: by the end of the century there were hundreds of specialized areas in mathematics and the Mathematics Subject Classification was dozens of pages long. More and moremathematical journals were published and, by the end of the century, the development of the world wide web led to online publishing.

    21st century

    In 2000, the Clay Mathematics Institute announced the seven Millennium Prize Problems, and in 2003 the Poincaré conjecture was solved byGrigori Perelman (who declined to accept any awards).

    Most mathematical journals now have online versions as well as print versions, and many online-only journals are launched. There is an increasing drive towards open access publishing, first popularized by the arXiv